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Flashcards in C3 - Chemical Economics Deck (78):
1

What is the equation for atom economy?

(Mr of desired product ÷ sum of Mr of ALL products) x 100

2

What is the equation for percentage yield?

(actual yield ÷ expected yield) x 100

3

How do you calculate the energy tranferred by a fuel?

mass of water x specific heat capacity of water x temperature change

4

How do you calculate the energy tranferred by a fuel per gram?

energy transferred ÷ mass of fuel burned

5

What are the 3 allotropes of carbon?

Diamond, Graphite and Buckminsterfullerene

6

What are the advantages of a continuous process?

Does not need to be shut down often. Can be highly automated. Can produce a high quantity at once. Consistent quality.

7

What are the disadvantages of a continuous process?

High startup costs. Not flexible - can't produce a range of products on the same machinery.

8

What are the advantages of a batch process?

Small/low startup costs. Can produce a variety of products (flexible). Drugs can be complicated so it's easier to make small batches - easier to recall if there is a problem.

9

What are the disadvantages of a batch process?

Equipment needs cleaning out before each batch. Difficult to keep consistentcy. Very labour intensive.

10

What are the properties of diamond?

High melting point. Rigid structure. Does NOT conduct electricity. Lustrous/shiny.

11

What are the properties of buckminsterfullerene?

Shaped like closed tubes or hollow balls. Can be joined to form nanotubes. Used as industrial catalysts.

12

What are the properties of graphite?

High melting point. Slippery. Conducts electricity. Lustrous/shiny.

13

Why does diamond not conduct electricity?

Because there are no delocalised (free) electrons. All 4 carbon atoms are bonded to.

14

Why do diamond and graphite have high melting points?

Because the strong covalent bonds take a lot of energy to break.

15

Why can graphite conduct electricity?

Because only 3 out of the 4 carbon atoms are used in bonds, therefore it has free (delocalised) electrons.

16

Why can fullerene be used as a catalyst?

They can be joined to form nanotubes which have a large surface area. Individual catalyst molecules can be attached to the nanotube.

17

What can fullerenes be used for?

Administering drugs to the body for slow release, by caging the molecule and trapping it inside. Industrial catalysts.

18

What properties do giant molecular structures have?

Usually don't conduct electricity - except graphite. Have high melting points. Don't dissolve in water. Strong.

19

What is an exothermic reaction?

One which gives out energy to the surroundings, usually in the form of heat, which is shown by a rise in temperature.

20

What is an endothermic reaction?

One which takes in energy from the surroundings, usually in the form of heat which is shown by a fall in temperature.

21

What is an example of an endothermic reaction?

Thermal decomposition because heat must be supplied to cause the compound to decompose.

22

What is an example of an exothermic reaction?

Burning fuels, as it gives out lots of heat.

23

What happens to bonds in an exothermic reaction?

The energy released in bond formation exceeds the amount of energy used in breaking old bonds.

24

What happens to bonds in an endothermic reaction?

The energy required to break old bonds is greater than the energy released when new bonds are formed.

25

What does a calorimetric experiment involve?

Heating water by burning a liquid fuel. Reduce draughts and put as much heat as possible into heating up the water.

26

How is a calorimetric experiment kept fair?

Same apparatus, same amount of water, and the water should start and finish at the same temperature.

27

What is one of the slowest reactions?

Rusting of iron. Though others include chemical weathering.

28

What is an example of a moderate speed reaction?

Reacting a metal with a dilute acid to produce a gentle stream of bubbles.

29

What is an example of a fast reaction?

Burning is really fast. But an explosion is even faster and releases a lot of gas. Explosive reactions are all over in a fraction of a second.

30

What 2 ways can the gas produced measure the rate of a reaction?

Measure the change in mass - take readings off the balance at regular intervals. Measure the volume of gas - use a gas syringe to measure the volume of gas produced at regular intervals.

31

What does the rate of a chemical reaction depend upon?

Collision frequency (how often they collide), and the energy transferred during a collision (particles must collide with sufficient energy to be successful).

32

What 4 factors can lead to an increased rate of reaction?

Increasing the temperature, increasing the concentration or pressure, larger surface area (by crushing/cutting into smaller pieces) and addding a catalyst

33

What happens to mass in a reaction?

It is always conserved. No atoms are destroyed or created.

34

What does a low atom economy mean?

They use up resources very quickly and make lots of waste materials - usually these processes aren't profitable.

35

What does a high atom economy mean?

The products are used and produce lots of products, very little is wasted.

36

Why do industrial processes want as high a % yield as possible?

To reduce waste and reduce costs/make more profit.

37

Why is the % yield never 100%?

Because some product always gets lost through things like: evaporation, not all reactants reacting to make a product, filtration and transferring liquids (left on inside of container)

38

Why do pharmaceutical drugs cost a lot?

Research and development (finding a suitable compound, testing it and modifying it), trialling (all need to be tested before use) and manufacture (batch process is labour intensive and can't be automated)

39

What are the steps in chromatography?

Crush, boil to dissolve in a suitable solvent, separate by chromatography (spots of different chemicals move up the paper at different speeds), extract the chemical you want.

40

(Mr of desired product ÷ sum of Mr of ALL products) x 100

What is the equation for atom economy?

41

(actual yield ÷ expected yield) x 100

What is the equation for percentage yield?

42

mass of water x specific heat capacity of water x temperature change

How do you calculate the energy tranferred by a fuel?

43

energy transferred ÷ mass of fuel burned

How do you calculate the energy tranferred by a fuel per gram?

44

Diamond, Graphite and Buckminsterfullerene

What are the 3 allotropes of carbon?

45

Does not need to be shut down often. Can be highly automated. Can produce a high quantity at once. Consistent quality.

What are the advantages of a continuous process?

46

High startup costs. Not flexible - can't produce a range of products on the same machinery.

What are the disadvantages of a continuous process?

47

Small/low startup costs. Can produce a variety of products (flexible). Drugs can be complicated so it's easier to make small batches - easier to recall if there is a problem.

What are the advantages of a batch process?

48

Equipment needs cleaning out before each batch. Difficult to keep consistentcy. Very labour intensive.

What are the disadvantages of a batch process?

49

High melting point. Rigid structure. Does NOT conduct electricity. Lustrous/shiny.

What are the properties of diamond?

50

Shaped like closed tubes or hollow balls. Can be joined to form nanotubes. Used as industrial catalysts.

What are the properties of buckminsterfullerene?

51

High melting point. Slippery. Conducts electricity. Lustrous/shiny.

What are the properties of graphite?

52

Because there are no delocalised (free) electrons. All 4 carbon atoms are bonded to.

Why does diamond not conduct electricity?

53

Because the strong covalent bonds take a lot of energy to break.

Why do diamond and graphite have high melting points?

54

Because only 3 out of the 4 carbon atoms are used in bonds, therefore it has free (delocalised) electrons.

Why can graphite conduct electricity?

55

They can be joined to form nanotubes which have a large surface area. Individual catalyst molecules can be attached to the nanotube.

Why can fullerene be used as a catalyst?

56

Administering drugs to the body for slow release, by caging the molecule and trapping it inside. Industrial catalysts.

What can fullerenes be used for?

57

Usually don't conduct electricity - except graphite. Have high melting points. Don't dissolve in water. Strong.

What properties do giant molecular structures have?

58

One which gives out energy to the surroundings, usually in the form of heat, which is shown by a rise in temperature.

What is an exothermic reaction?

59

One which takes in energy from the surroundings, usually in the form of heat which is shown by a fall in temperature.

What is an endothermic reaction?

60

Thermal decomposition because heat must be supplied to cause the compound to decompose.

What is an example of an endothermic reaction?

61

Burning fuels, as it gives out lots of heat.

What is an example of an exothermic reaction?

62

The energy released in bond formation exceeds the amount of energy used in breaking old bonds.

What happens to bonds in an exothermic reaction?

63

The energy required to break old bonds is greater than the energy released when new bonds are formed.

What happens to bonds in an endothermic reaction?

64

Heating water by burning a liquid fuel. Reduce draughts and put as much heat as possible into heating up the water.

What does a calorimetric experiment involve?

65

Same apparatus, same amount of water, and the water should start and finish at the same temperature.

How is a calorimetric experiment kept fair?

66

Rusting of iron. Though others include chemical weathering.

What is one of the slowest reactions?

67

Reacting a metal with a dilute acid to produce a gentle stream of bubbles.

What is an example of a moderate speed reaction?

68

Burning is really fast. But an explosion is even faster and releases a lot of gas. Explosive reactions are all over in a fraction of a second.

What is an example of a fast reaction?

69

Measure the change in mass - take readings off the balance at regular intervals. Measure the volume of gas - use a gas syringe to measure the volume of gas produced at regular intervals.

What 2 ways can the gas produced measure the rate of a reaction?

70

Collision frequency (how often they collide), and the energy transferred during a collision (particles must collide with sufficient energy to be successful).

What does the rate of a chemical reaction depend upon?

71

Increasing the temperature, increasing the concentration or pressure, larger surface area (by crushing/cutting into smaller pieces) and addding a catalyst

What 4 factors can lead to an increased rate of reaction?

72

It is always conserved. No atoms are destroyed or created.

What happens to mass in a reaction?

73

They use up resources very quickly and make lots of waste materials - usually these processes aren't profitable.

What does a low atom economy mean?

74

The products are used and produce lots of products, very little is wasted.

What does a high atom economy mean?

75

To reduce waste and reduce costs/make more profit.

Why do industrial processes want as high a % yield as possible?

76

Because some product always gets lost through things like: evaporation, not all reactants reacting to make a product, filtration and transferring liquids (left on inside of container)

Why is the % yield never 100%?

77

Research and development (finding a suitable compound, testing it and modifying it), trialling (all need to be tested before use) and manufacture (batch process is labour intensive and can't be automated)

Why do pharmaceutical drugs cost a lot?

78

Crush, boil to dissolve in a suitable solvent, separate by chromatography (spots of different chemicals move up the paper at different speeds), extract the chemical you want.

What are the steps in chromatography?