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Flashcards in Cancer Deck (103):
1

neoplasm

abnormal mass of tissue, growth exceeds what is normal

2

benign

neoplasm that grows locally without invasion or metastasis
--usually highly differentiated
--usually less dangerous thatn malignant neoplasms, but may hve clinical problems

3

malignant

denotes a neoplasm that can invade and/or metastasize

4

metastatsis

growth of cancer cells at asecond separate state

5

carcinoma

malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin

6

adenocarcinoma

carcinoma in glandular tissue

7

carcinoma in situ (CIS)

lesion that is histologically malignant but not yet invaded
--severe dysplasia in cells
--precancerous/premalignant

8

sarcoma

malignant neoplasm in mesenchymal cell origin (CT, bone, fat, muscle)

9

differentiation

extent to which cell resembles comparable normal cells, both morpholocailly and functionally

10

anaplasia

failure of cells to differentiate to normal adult phenotypes
--characteristic of malignant transformation

11

hamartoma

mass of cells which are normally present in particular organ, but are abnormal in arrangement

usually one cell predominates

NOT a neoplasm

12

pleomorphism

variation in cellular appearance, size, and shape WITHIN a tumor

13

atypia

morphologically different from normal cell

-nuceli larger, darker, and have more irregular nuclear contours

14

acinar

glandular, but denoting a secretory unit rather than duct

15

papillary

forming finger-like growths witha central stalk and an epithelial surface

16

polyp

mass protruding from a surface

17

dysplasia

some degree of loss of normal differentiation of cells and tissues

18

teratoma

benign neoplasm with components representing all three germ layers

19

stroma

vascular ct supprting parenchyma of an organ, or supporting the proliferating cells of a neoplasm

20

desmoplastic stroma

strma dominated by dense fibrous tissues

21

parenchyma

in purely epithelial neoplasm, parenchyma is the neoplastic epithelial component

22

fibroma, fibrosarcoma

neoplasms of fibroblasts

23

lipoma,liposarcoma

neo of fat cells

24

leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma

neo of smooth muscle cells

25

rhabadomyosarcoma

malignant neoplasm of striated muscle cells

26

different non neoplastic tumors

metaplasia
hyperplasia
ypertrophy
hamartoma

27

names of benign tumors

ademoma
squamous papilloma
osteoma
leiomyoma

28

most metastases through

invaision through basement membrane and gain access to either a lymphatic or blood vessel and are therefore transferred to new location

29

dysplasia

int step between normal and carcinoma

30

dysplasia of cervix

low grade can revert to normalor go to high grade which can go to anaplasia--sccale

31

cyst

empty space in center but enclosed

32

polypoid

mushroom like--peduncculated vs sessile

33

teratoma

mutiple lines of differentiation on a single neopasm

typically in ovary or teste

34

harartoma

tumor (malformation) but not neoplasm

35

different types precursor lesions

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
high grade intraepithelial lesion
prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
pancreatic intraepithelial neopasia

36

tumor grade

the degree of differentiation of a malignant neoplasm

37

tumor stage

classification of the extent of involvement by a malignant neoplasm

*more predictive of patient outcome than grade

38

TNM staging

T: size of primary tuor
N: involvement of lymph nodes
M: location/extent of metastases

39

neoplasms break through

barriers
- genetic changes
-epigenetic changes

40

clonal

all derived from one original cell
*neoplasms are almost always clonal
--more than one mutation!

41

three most common neoplasms in men

prostate
lung
colon

42

three most common neoplasms in women

breast
lung
colon

43

sentinel lymph node

first drain of cancer, therefore useful for staging

44

seven histological features of malignant neoplasms

pleomorphism
high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
hyperchromasia
nuclear contour irregularities
clumped chromatin
abnormal mitoses
loss of polarity
necrosis

45

things that arent neoplasm

hypertrophy
hyperplasia
metaplasia

46

hamartoma

not a neoplasm
--normal element for site, abnormally arrangement

xray shows popcorn kernel

47

tumors at surgery

benign tumors "shell out", while cancers stick to their surroundings

48

ex of benign but deadly benign tumor

meningeoma
--growing and growing and reappearing so deadly even at stage 1

49

carcinoma compromise what percentage of cancer

80%
--epithelial cancer-->develop in all three germ layers

50

endoderm carcinoma

colonic adenocarcinoma

51

mesoderm carcinoma

renal cell carcinoma

52

ectoderm carcinoma

squamous cell carcinoma

53

sarcoma

mesenchyma (connective tssue) cancer

54

dysplasia only pertains to

epithelial (not CT) tissue

55

dysplasia is a

premalignant change
may evolve to carcinoma, but also may be reversible if stimulus is removed

56

pleomorphism

variation in size and shape

57

hyperchromasia

increased density of nuclear chromatin

58

chromatin distribution

clumped, condensed along nuclear membrane

59

nuclear : cytoplasm ratio

closer the cell gets to 1, the more undifferentiated the cell is:
1: nucleus is taking up entire cell
decrase in diff= inc in prolif

60

degrees of differentiation

low: well-differentiated (mimics normal tissue)
high: poorly differentiated: little resemblance to normal

61

growth rate is determined by

degree to which cell production (replication) exeeds cell loss (apoptosis)

62

30 doublings

109 cells

63

10 more doublings than 30

1012 cells

64

factors affecting freq of tumors

random
hereditary
environment

65

most chemical carcinogens are

mutagens

66

ames test

utilizes bacteria that have lost the capacity to synthesize histidine, can only grow on normal media if reverts back to being his+

67

precarcinogens

not mutagenic in ames test until metabolized to active form by liver homogenate (contains cytocrome p450), but then they are just considered carcinogens

68

types of DNA damage

1) alkylation
2) depurination/depyrmidination
3) bulky DNA adducts that can interefere with base pairing
4) double strand breaks

69

alkylation

causes mismatching in base pairing
ex) vinyl chloride- rare angiocarcinoma in liver

70

indirect acting carcinogens (vs direct)

require metabolic activation to become mutagenic--> metab to electrophic species that can react with cellular dna

71

properties of transformed cells

-rounded shape
- proliferate independently (immortalization)
-loss of contact inhibiton
-anchorage independent
-reduced req growth factors
-increased intracellular transport of glucse
-make tumrs

72

RSV

even when present in cell, only transformed when temperature at right place

73

RSV genes

gag, pol, env needed for replication, but src needed for transformation-->oncogene

74

c-src

precursor to v-src (protooncogene)
needs to be activated

75

radiation causes

DNA damage, chromosomal breakage, and cytogenic abnormalities

76

stochasitic events

accidents! during DNA replication

mechanisms:
oxidative damage
external agents (chemicals, virus, radiation)

77

examples of defective dna repair in carcinogenesis

xeroderma pigmentosum
hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
blooms syndrome

78

xeroderma pigmentosum

rare human hereditary disease characterized by a predisposition to develop skin cancer following exposure to sunlight

cells deficient in nucleotdice excision repair and therefore exhivit decreased survial and inreased mutation folowing DNA damage

79

hnpcc

defect in DNA mismatch repair linked to MLH1,MSH2, and related genes

80

bloom's syndrome

rare human recessive hereditary disease characterized by a chromosomal instability with a predisposition to develop leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinoma

81

multistep tumor progression

succession of clonal expansions each of which is triggered by the chance acquisition of an enabling mutant phenotype

82

azaserine induced lesions of rat pancreas

1-2 months of hyperplasia/dysplasia
~>1 year--premalignant neoplasm
after 1 year- carcinoma

83

two enabling characteristics crucial for carcinogenesis

genome instability
tumor-promoting inflammation

84

genome instability

destabilization of gene copy number and nucleotide sequence

caused by
- increased sensitivity to mutagenic agents
- breakdown of caretaker genes, which control various components of DNA-maintenance machinary

85

what do caretaker genes take care of

detection of DNA damage
repar of damaged DNA
inactivation of mutagenic molecules
telomere maintenance

86

tumor promoting inflammation leads to release of

growth factors
survival factors
proangiogenic factors
reactive oxygen species (mutagenic)

87

hallmarks of cancer

-sustaining proliferative sigaling
-evading growth suppressors (inact tumor suppressors)
-activating invaision and metsastes
- enabling replication immortality
-inducing angiogenesiss (VEGF)
-resisting cell death (downreg p53)
-deregulating cellular energetics

88

steps in carcinogenesis

initiation (genetic mutation)
promotion (nogenetic mechanisms)--epigenetic events that favor tumor dev
progression (multiple genetic events to confer a malignant phenotype)

89

initation is

mutagenic, therefore irreversible

90

promotion is

nonmutangeic, therefore reversible

91

modifiers of carcinogenesis

enzyme induction

genetic polymorphisms

diet
-antioxidants, vitamin a, caloric intake

cell cycle- labile more vulnerable, dividing more vulnerable

92

cigarette smoking

carcinoma of lung and larynx

93

sun exposure

squamous carcinoma
melanoma

94

smoked and marinated foods rich in nitrosamines

adenocarcinoma of stomach

95

alcohol (esp with smoking)

squamous carcinoma of oral cavity and esophagus

96

aflatoxin B

hepatocellular carcinoma

97

asbetos

mesothelioma, carcinoma of lung

98

benzene

acute leukemia

99

B-naphthylamine, aniline dyes

carcinoma of bladder

100

nickel, chromium, uranium

carcinoma of lung

101

polyvinyl chloride

hepatic angiosarcoma

102

thorotrast

hepatic angiosarcoma

103

alkylating chemotherapeutic agents

acute leukemia