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Flashcards in tumor immuno Deck (15):
1

phenotypic hallmarks of cancer (6)

1- dysregulation of cell proliferation
2- insensitivity to growth inhibitory signals
3- evasion of apoptosis
4- limitless replicative potential
5- angiogenesis
6- invasion and metastasis

2

multistep concept to cancer

initiation
promotion
progression

3

initiation

genetically altered cells

4

promotion

clonal expansion of initiated cells

5

progression

additional genetic and phenotypic changes required for malignancy

6

4 things that happen during progression

angiogenesis

expression of enzymes that destroy the basement membrane

expression of telomerase

evasion of apoptoisis

7

inflammation causes

generation of promutagenic reactive oxygen species

increased cell turnover due to regeneration of parenchymal cells

8

how does hepatitis cause cancer?

RNA virus

nonspecific hypothesis:
inflammation/repair-->ROS generation-->increase in cell divison

specific hypothesis: viral genome-encoded proteins inhibit tumor suppressor gene

9

NKC recognize

cells that aren't expressing MHCI

10

HTLV

RNA virus
T-cell leukemia

11

EBV

DNA
b cell lymphoma
Hodgkin's lymphoma
NP carcinoma

12

HPV

cervical carcinoma

13

HBV

hepatocellular carcinoma

14

2 examples of oncofetal antigens

carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)--> surface glycoprotein of GI and breast tumors

AFP-->glycoprotein of hepatomas

15

tumor self protection mechanisms

passive- immune evasion
--antigen loss
active-immune suppresion
--recruitment of treg cells
--production of anti inflamm mediators IL10 and TGFB
--recruitment of myeloid derived repressor cells