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Flashcards in Environmental Path Deck (53):
1

DALY

years of life lost to premature mortality added to years lived with illness and disability

2

70% of child deaths are attributed to these 5 things

pneumonia
diarrheal diseases
malaria
measles
perinatal/neonatal problems

*all preventable

3

most solvents are

lipophilic--can penetrate plasma membranes

4

2 phases of detox

phase 1- metabolism to a more/less toxic intermediary
--primary metabolite

phase 2- binding of one of the products to a macromolecule
-->secondary metabolite

5

phase 1 rxns

hydrolysis
reduction
oxidation

6

phase 2 rxns

glucuronidation
sulfation
methylation conjugation

7

primary or secondary metabolite can be

eliminated in urine, bile, or feces

8

6 pollutants tracked by National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Nitrogen oxides
Sulfur dioxide
Particualtes
Carbon Monoxide
Lead
Ozone

9

sulfur dioxide produced from

burning coal and oil, copper smelting, or paper mills

10

acute Co poisioning characteristic

cherry red skin color
20-30%-->hypoxia
60-70% saturdation-->unconsciousness and death

11

good ozone

interaction of UV radiation and oxygen in stratosphere

12

bad ozone

nitrogen oxides + volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight

13

ozone toxicity mediated by

production of free radicals

14

sick building sndrome

multiple pollutants due to poor ventilation

15

radon

radioactive gas from decay of uranium, in soil, lung carcinogen

16

bioaerosols

legionella can colonize duct systems

dusts from insects

17

three major risks of smoking

increase cancer risk
increase atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease
increase prengnacy/birth problems

18

2 phases of smoking

gas phase
particulate phase (tar)

both have carcinogens

19

tar

total particulate phase without water or nicotine

20

switching to low tar

probably negligible effects on carcinogenesis

21

pathogenic effects of smoking

direct irritant effect on tracehobroncial mucosa (inflam & mucous)

leukocytes to lung increased elastase production-->emphysema

electrophilic interediates that can cause mutations in oncogenes or tumor suppressors

22

lead exposure via

contaiminated air, food,water

flaking paint, batteries

23

maximal allowed limit lead

10 microgram/dl

24

children vs adults lead

children absorb more readily in gut

25

subclinical lead poisioning

low intellectual capacity
behavioral problems
jyperactivity

26

target organs of lead poisioning

blood and bone marrow
nervous system
GI
kidneys

27

problems with lead in bone and blood

microcytic hypochromic anemia
ring sideroblasts in marrow
basiphilic stripping
incorporated into bone and teeth

28

lead can permeate the

BBB

29

what does lead damage in kidneys

proximal tubular damage
renal failure
gout

30

where does mercury come from

contaminated fish, dental amalgam work

31

how does hg work

absorbed in G i tract, developing brain sensitive--> can cause paralysis and death

if passes to placenta--fetal brain damage, mental retardation, death

32

Minimata disease

from detal exposure to Hg

cerebral palsy
deafness
blindness
mental retardation

33

mad hatters disease

chronic hg exposure was common in hatters who used hg solution during process of curing animal pelts

34

arsenic is found

water and soil, herbal medicines

most toxic form-trivalent form- replace phosphates in atp

35

acute toxicity arsenic vs chronic

acute- gi and cns, fatal
chronic- cancer of lung and skin (basal and squamous cell carcinomas)

36

cadmium

nickel-cad batters
food

37

toxic effects cad

obstructive lung disease
renal damage- skeletal abnormalities with loss of ca
increase risk of cancer

38

polycyclic hydrocarbons (tar soot)

lung and bladder cancers

39

organic solvents

chloroform, ccl4, benzene

dizziness, confusion, cns depression, coma, leukemia

40

organochlorines

synthetic lipophilic compounds that resist degradation
--ddt, lindane, pcb, dioxin, pbde

41

dioxine and pcb

skin chloracne, follicultis, hyperpig

abnormalities of liver

cns

42

vinyl chloride

angiosarcoma

43

pthalates

endocrne disruption

44

elimination of alcohol

90% to acetaldehyde and rest unchanged in urine, breathe, sweat

45

three enzyme systems alochol

alcohol dehydrogenase
microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (excess levels)
catalase (minor)

46

legal def of driving under influence

80 mg/dl

47

acute effects of alcohol

fatty changes
gastritis, ulcertaion
cns depression-->resp arrest

48

chronic effects of alch

fatty liver ( decrease Nadused for fa oxidation and lactate-->pyruvate conversion)

acute alcoholic hepatitis

liver cirrhosis

fetal alcohol syndrome

liver cancer

malnutrition

dilated cardiomyopathy

elevated HDL

cancers of esophagus, oral cavity

49

why malnutrition

decrease intake of thiamine: wernike-korsakoff syndrome

50

Wernicke encephalopathy

menta confusion, occulomotor disturbance, ataxaias

can progress to KP

51

acute alcoholic hepatitis is mostly

reversible

52

cirrhosis

irreversible

53

fatty change of liver

reversible