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Human Diseases: A Systemic Approach > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (100):

What are the five most common cancers in order?



Another term for tumor



The two different kinds of tumors

Benign and malignant


Noncancerous and usually localized to a tissue or organ.

Benign tumor


Consist of rapidly dividing cells that accumulate uncontrollably, invade normal tissue, and have the ability to metastasize.

Malignant tumors


What four factors regulate cell growth?

Growth factors, growth inhibitors, cell cycle proteins called cyclins, and programmed cell death or apoptosis


A term for the development of cancer



A change in the biochemistry of a gene, resulting in the production of abnormal cells.



A gene that when mutated or expressed at abnormally high levels contributes to converting a normal cell into a cancer cell.



The transformation of a normal cell two of malignant cell takes place not only by activation of oncogenes but also by inactivation or deletion of

Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs)


Also known as caretaker genes, are responsible for the repair of errors in normal DNA replication

DNA repair genes


What are the two different etiologies of cancer?

Endogenous and environmental


What is the major cause of lung cancer throughout the world, and is also a major factor in the development of cancers in the stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and cervix?



What is the most common cause of occupational cancer?

Asbestos (causes mesothelioma)


What is a large factor in causing a variety of neoplasms, including leukemia, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer?

Radiation (sunlight is most significant source of ultraviolet radiation)


What is The next largest contributor to cancer deaths?

Diet and obesity.


What two factors are strongly associated with development of cancer is in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus?

Alcohol, along with tobacco


Another name for cancer



The most common malignant disease worldwide and major cause of death from cancer. Rare disease until beginning of 20th century due to increase in consumption of tobacco.

Lung cancer (tobacco accounts for 90% of lung cancers)


What are the symptoms and signs of lung cancer?

Unfortunately, symptoms are present once the disease is advanced. Cough and reported along with shortness of breath, blood in sputum, chest pain, and loss of appetite. Also wheezing, stridor, hoarseness, dysphagia, or difficulty speaking.


How do you treat lung cancer?

Early-stage tumors are treated with surgery. Radiation therapy is also used Adam early stage tumors. Advanced stages may be treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, relapse rates occur frequently and survival rates are poor.


The most frequently diagnosed cancer in women

Breast cancer


What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?

Earliest sign is abnormality detected on a mammogram, or breast self-examination. Breast may thicken, swell, distort, become tender, and have skin irritation.


How do you treat breast cancer?

Depends on tumor size, stains, and patient preference. Surgery for a lumpectomy, or mastectomy with removal of some axillary lymph nodes. Also chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted biologic therapy.


The fourth most common malignancy in the world and steadily becoming less common.

Stomach cancer


What are the dietary risk factors for stomach cancer?

In adequate intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, high salt intake, and consumption of smoked or cured meats or fish. Ulceration is also considered a risk factor for stomach cancer.


What are the symptoms and signs of stomach cancer?

Early forms are usually asymptomatic. Most common symptom is mild pain in upper abdomen, which is often confused with simple indigestion. Nonspecific symptoms include fatigue, loss of energy, and decrease in appetite.


What are some treatment options for stomach cancer?

Surgery is the most important treatment for stomach cancer. Often a large part of stomach or all of the stomach will need to be removed. Radiation therapy is important in cases where tumor cannot be removed.


The cancer that is most common in Western societies were consumption of high-fat food, refined carbohydrates, and animal protein combined with low physical activity is common.

Colorectal cancer


What are signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer?

Advanced forms may cause rectal bleeding, blood in the stool, a change in bowel habits, and pain in lower abdomen.


How can you treat colorectal cancer?

Surgery is a curate is for colorectal cancer is that have not spread. A permanent colostomy is rarely needed for colon cancer and frequently required for rectal cancer. Chemotherapy in combination with radiation is used to treat invasive tumor's prior and after surgery.


Accounts for almost 4% of all cancers worldwide and effects men three times more frequently than women. The liver is the second most commonly involved organ in metastatic disease.

Liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma)


How do you get liver cancer?

Viral replications in infected cells and consequent immune response result in persistent inflammation that progresses towards chronic liver disease and malignant changes.


What are the symptoms and signs of liver cancer?

Abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal swelling, and anorexia. Also may show impaired liver function, ascites, hepatomegaly, and jaundice. 10% survival at five years.


What is the second most common cancer in women?

Cervical cancer


How do you treat liver cancer?

Depends on the extent of disease. Surgical removal of tumors with defined margins is primary treatment. Most hepatocellular cancers are not sensitive the chemotherapy. Radiation can control symptoms by shrinking the tumor. Liver transplantation is recommended.


How do you get cervical cancer?

High-risk sexual behavior, such as multiple sex partners, and early age at initiation of sexual activity reflect the probability of infection with HPV and associated cervical cancer.


How can you treat cervical cancer?

Treated by killing the diseased tissue via surgery, or cryosurgery, or applying heat via cautery or laser.


The seventh most common cancer of women worldwide, with highest incidence reported in the United States.

Cancer of the uterus or endometrium


How do you get uterine cancer?

Linked to women who have never been pregnant or women in late menopause. Oral estrogen therapy and prior removal of ovaries also increase the risk for endometrial cancer. Also associated with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.


What are the signs and symptoms of uterine cancer?

Most common sign is uterine bleeding, especially after menopause. Other signs are linked to a mass in the abdomen such as dysuria, constipation, or bloating.


How do you treat uterine cancer?

Pre-cancerous lesions are treated by surgical removal of the uterus or a hysterectomy. Total abdominal hysterectomy with removal of ovaries is definitive treatment for carcinoma of the uterus. Radiation therapy is recommended in patients at risk for relapse.


The third most common cancer in men worldwide.

Prostate cancer


How do you get prostate cancer?

Age is leading risk factor. Diet high in saturated fat and the lack of nutrients may play a role.


What are the symptoms and signs of prostate cancer?

There are no symptoms that are absolutely specific to prostate cancer. Urinary hesitancy, frequency, urgency, dribbling, weak stream; blood in urine; and pain in lower abdomen resemble symptoms of urinary tract infection or benign growth of prostate.


How do you treat prostate cancer?

Surgery to remove the prostate is recommended. Radiation therapy is recommended for men who are not suitable for surgery. Endocrine therapy may foster growth of the tumor


Accounts for 1.5% of all male cancers. May occur at all ages, the risk is greatest in them during third and fourth decades of life.

Testicular cancer


How do you get testicular cancer?

Most common malignant tumors originate from germ cells that have potential to grow and develop into many different types of tissues. Greater increase of incidents in those with family history.


Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer?

Usually detected as painless lump on testicle. Rarely, is there a lump in the neck, pain or discomfort in the back, or shortness of breath due to Metastases in the lungs.


How do you treat testicular cancer?

Surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. 80% of patients with advanced disease respond to all three treatments.


The sixth most frequent cancer worldwide.

Esophageal cancer


How do you get esophageal cancer?

Consumption of tobacco and alcohol, association with low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, is casually associated with this cancer. 90% of this cancer is a committed to tobacco and alcohol.


What are the signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer?

Difficulty swallowing or pain with eating or drinking are most common. Unexplained weight loss, hoarseness of the voice, and bleeding from the throat may be associated with advanced disease.


How do you treat esophageal cancer?

Surgical removal of the esophagus. Radiation therapy as well as chemotherapy have been used alone or combined with surgery. Five-year survival rate ranges from 10 to 20%.


The ninth most common cancer worldwide.

Bladder cancer


How do you get bladder cancer?

Most important risk factor is cigarette smoking. Exposure to certain industrial chemicals, such as rubber, aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and solvents used in paint and hairspray is correlated with increased risk.


What are the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?

Most common symptom is hematuria. Pain is rarely associated. Increased urinary frequency is reported but often mistaken for less serious condition.


How do you treat bladder cancer?

Surgery alone or combined with radiation or chemo therapy is used to treat 90% of cases. Localized tumors can be treated with immune therapy or chemotherapy directly into the bladder. Five-year survival rate of bladder cancer is 82%.


Cancer in the upper arrow digestive tract, larynx, and pharynx comprise of these cancers. Effects twice as many men as women.

Head and neck cancer


How do you get head and neck cancer?

Smoking and excess alcohol consumption are the major risk factors for head and neck cancer.


What are the symptoms and signs for head and neck cancer?

Symptoms of oral cancer include head and neck pain, bleeding, difficulty opening the mouth, chewing, swallowing, and talking, and pain in the neck. Shows red mucosal patches. Advanced disease shows large areas of necrosis that may extend to bone, muscle, and skin.


How do you treat head and neck cancer?

Aimed at removing the tumor while preserving optimal tissue function. Radiation with therapy is a mainstay treatment. Chemotherapy is applied for advanced stages.


Convers a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of lymphoid tissue. Characterized as either Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.



How do you get Hodgkin's disease?

Most often occurs in young adults. Explained by infections with EBV, HIV, and chronic exposure to wood or wood products.


What are the symptoms and signs of Hodgkin's disease?

Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, or growing. Also make sure fatigue, unexplained fever, night sweats, and indigestion.


How do you treat Hodgkin's disease?

Treated with chemotherapy with combinations of several different agents. Survival is related to extend of disease. Five-year survival for all stages is estimated at 70% to 90%.


How do you get non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Patients with HIV/AIDS or have received in mean suppressive therapy are at higher risk for developing this disease


What are the signs and symptoms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Painless swelling of the lymph nodes. Similar to Hodgkins, feelings of fatigue, night sweats, and fever are also reported.


How do you treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Treatment with radiation and or chemotherapy can be administered as needed over a period of many years. Recurrent lymphomas have been treated with bone marrow transplant Tatian with some success.


Causes massive proliferation of immature forms of white blood cells. Is diagnosed 10 times more often in adults than and children.



What are the symptoms and signs of leukemia?

Fatigue, paleness, weight loss, repeated infections, fever, bruising easily, and nosebleeds or other hemorrhages. These appear suddenly in a cute leukemia, and chronic leukemia can progress slowly with fewer symptoms.


The symptoms and signs of leukemia are pretty general. How can you tell if someone really has it?

Blood tests and bone marrow biopsy provide definitive evidence.


How do you treat leukemia?

Chemo therapy is most effective. Supportive treatment with blood transfusions and antibiotics is needed for treatment of anemia and infections. Bone marrow transplantation is one form of therapy for a late stages.


A difficult disease to detect and treat. 14th most common cancer worldwide.

Pancreatic cancer


How do you get pancreatic cancer?

30% of cases are attributed to smoking. Diets low in fiber and high in consumption of red meat and fat are also associated with this disease.


How can you tell if someone has pancreatic cancer?

Weight loss, nausea, diarrhea, weakness, jaundice, and upper abdominal pain.


How can you treat pancreatic cancer?

Surgery offers patients the only chance for a cure. Palliative treatment is needed for treatment of jaundice and gastric obstructions. Survival of this cancer is poor, and majority of patients die within one year.


A malignant proliferation of pigment producing cells or melanocytes.



How do you get melanoma?

Occurs primarily in white skinned individuals. Risk factors include sensitivity to light, extent of sun exposure, exposure to industrial chemicals such as coal tar, arsenic, and radium, and history of skin cancer.


How can you tell if you have a melanoma?

According to examination of skin, usually start as small, mole-like growths that increase in size and change in color. Simple ABCD rules outline warning signs. Biopsy confirms.


How do you treat melanoma?

Surgery is required to remove the lesion. Radiation is used to treat recurrent disease or Metastases. Are not very responsive to chemotherapy drugs.


Is relatively rare, and can occur at any age, including young adults and teens.

Thyroid cancer


How do you get thyroid cancer?

Radiation exposure, iodine deficiency, and radioactive iodine exposures are among known risks for thyroid cancer.


What are the symptoms and signs of thyroid cancer?

Has no obvious symptoms in early stages. Majority of cancers become papable as thyroid nodules. Hoarseness, dyspepsia, and dysphagia may reflect local invasion to the larynx, trachea, or esophagus.


How do you treat thyroid cancer?

Is cured by complete surgical removal of the thyroid gland.


The most common type of this cancer, renal carcinoma, occurs twice as frequently in men than women. 15th most common cancer in the world.

Kidney cancer


How do you get kidney cancer?

Has consistently been found to be more common in cigarette smokers. Increase risk linked to obesity, especially in women. Leather tanners, shoeworkers, and dry-cleaning employees have been increased risk, as do workers exposed to asbestos.


What are the symptoms and signs of kidney cancer?

Commonly causes no symptoms in early stages. Advanced symptoms include hematuria, flank pain, and palpable kidney mass. Overproduction of normal kidney proteins and hormones cause hypertension, fevers, anemia, erythrocytosis, abnormal liver function, and hypercalcemia.


How do you treat kidney cancer?

Surgery is mainstage treatment for cancer of the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma is responsive to treatments with chemotherapy.


The majority of adult tumors of the central nervous system are derived from what cells?

Glial cells, support cells in the nervous system.


What causes brain cancer?

Bring them is a frequent site of Metastases from primary tumors that occur elsewhere. Childhood brain tumors result from defects in cell cycle control from fetal development.


What are the signs and symptoms of brain cancer?

Depends on location of neoplasm and may include slight paralysis, speech disturbances, and personality changes. Some patients have histories of epileptic seizures. Large tumors can cause life-threatening pressures which lead to unconsciousness and respiratory arrest.


How do you treat brain cancer?

Surgical removal of the tumor usually involves a craniotomy. Tumor may be surgically removed by use of laser. Radiation therapy is often applied to specific areas of the brain that are affected.


Although uncommon, childhood cancer is the second leading cause of death in children. Majority of childhood cancers are leukemia.

Pediatric cancer


Symptoms and signs of pediatric cancer?

Symptoms of early disease in children are often mistaken for less serious conditions. General symptoms include loss of energy, pallor, easy bruising, persistent pain, prolonged fever, frequent headaches, profuse vomiting, sudden changes in vision and weight loss.


How do you treat pediatric cancer?

Treated by combination of therapies, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy. Long-term survival from childhood cancer has improved, though many patients experience cancer treatment effects.


More than 60% of all cancers in United States occur in adults over what age?



Refers to early testing in individuals with risk factors for cancer

Cancer screening


The detection of cancer at an early stage

Early diagnosis


Review questions on page 84