Flashcards in Diseases Of The Cardiovascular System Deck (102):
The chamber walls of the heart consist of cardiac muscle, known as what?
The internal lining consist of smooth, delicate membrane called the what?
A double layered membrane, encloses the heart?
The filling period of the heart
The contracting phase of each chamber
What slows the heart rate during rest and sleep by means of the chemical acetylcholine?
What is responsible for the excitatory portion of increasing the heart rate during periods of stress, strenuous physical activity, and excitement?
Brought about by the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine which stimulates the hearts pacemaker.
Listening through a stethoscope for abnormal sounds
And electrical recording of the heart action and aids in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, valve disorders, and some congenital heart diseases.
Also a noninvasive procedure that utilizes high-frequency sound waves to examine the size, shape, and motion of hard structures.
Explores blood flow patterns and changes in velocity of blood flow within the heart and great vessels. Enables the cardiologist to evaluate valve stenosis or insufficiency.
A procedure in which a catheter is passed into the heart through your blood vessels to sample of the blood in each chamber for oxygen content and pressure.
A contrast indicator is injected into the cardiovascular system, can detect blockage in vessels.
Employees a selective injection of contrast material into coronary artery's for a film recording blood vessel action.
The leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in United States.
A general term used to describe an elevation of lipids or facts in the blood. Lipids include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides.
Why are high-density lipoprotein's better than low-density lipoprotein's?
HDL's Carrie about one-quarter to one-third of the cholesterol as an LDL. These also carry cholesterol to the liver, where it is eliminated from the body.
Can be classified as primary, in which this develops independent of other causes, and secondary, in which it is associated with other health problems or lifestyle.
What are the causes of hypercholesterolemia?
The LDL receptor is deficient or defective in the autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Also may caused by obesity and diabetes mellitus. High calorie diets increase production of LDL and cholesterol.
Artery walls thicken and become hard and inflexible, partly due to calcium deposition. Leads to hypertension.
Hardening of the arteries, is a multifaceted a disease that results from a number of insults that damage the vasculature. Hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are known risk factors that initiate this process.
What are the symptoms and signs of arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis?
Depends on where location is. In coronary arteries, causes chest pain and shortness of breath. In brain, causes a stroke. Leads to pain in muscles of leg, and in severe cases ulceration or gangrene of extremities.
Diseases affecting peripheral arterial ease are similar to those affecting the coronary or carotid arteries in that they produce ischemia. Most common affected arteries are femoral or popliteal arteries.
Peripheral arterial disease
What are the symptoms and signs of peripheral arterial disease?
Primary symptom is intermittent claudication, or pain with walking. Other signs are thinning of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of lower leg. Foot feels cool and lower leg pulse feels faint or absent.
How do you treat peripheral arterial disease?
Treatment is aimed at prevention of further complications. Walking slowly is usually encouraged because of increased circulation around clots. Avoid injury because extremities are slow to heal. Surgical bypass around the clot, or removal, may be indicated.
A functional disorder of the arteries caused by basso spasms in the fingers and toes. Occurs in healthy young women and is often precipitated by exposure to cold or emotional stress.
What are the symptoms and signs of Reynauds disease?
Changes in skin color from pallor to cyanosis accompanied by sensation of cold, numbness, or tingling. In severe disease, nails become brittle, and skin may thicken.
How do you treat Raynaud's disease?
Aimed at reducing triggers for the symptoms and protecting hands from trauma. Abstinence from smoking, protection of the hands from cold, and avoidance of emotional stress are important. Medications may be used with frequent symptoms.
Refers to the dilation of the aortic lumen.
What are the two different kinds of aneurysms?
Fusiform (he has a uniform shape, with symmetrical dilation that involves circumference of aortic wall)
Saccular (appears as an out-pouching of only a portion of the aortic wall)
What are the signs and symptoms of aortic aneurysm's?
Typically produce no symptoms and usually develop after age 50. Atherosclerosis is most common cause.
How do you treat aortic aneurysm?
Surgical repair of an aneurysm is at times indicated to prevent rupture. Diseased area of the vessel is removed and replaced with an artificial graft or segment of another vessel.
Hypertension is broadly defined as an arterial pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg in adults
What causes arterial hypertension?
Advancing age, sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and excessive dietary salt and alcohol consumption are risk factors for development of hypertension.
How do you treat arterial hypertension?
Aimed at reducing blood pressure to less than 140/90 mm HG and preventing organ damage.
How do you treat arterial hypertension?
Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and reduction of salt intake enhance the effectiveness of medication therapy and help reduce further disease risks.
A condition of high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. Average normal pressure in pulmonary artery is about 14 mm HG at rest. In this disease, pressure is greater than 25 mm HG at rest and 30 mm HG during exercise
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
What are the symptoms and signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension?
Symptoms include dyspnea, and syncope. As disease advances, pumping ability of the heart weakens and symptoms occur at rest.
What is the treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension?
Patients with severe symptoms required aggressive treatment to remove the underlying cause. Treatments include medications, oxygen therapy, and lung transplant Tatian.
Veins are dilated, distorted of things that usually develop in the superficial veins in the leg, such as the greater saphenous vein. Veins become swollen and painful and appear knotty under the skin. Caused by blood pooling within the veins because of decreased, stagnant blood flow, and become swollen and painful.
How do you treat varicose veins?
Depends on the severity of symptoms. And elastic bandage may increase circulation and provide relief from discomfort. Symptoms can be relieved by walking, elevating the legs when seated, and losing weight. Surgical procedure is very successful and involves removing the veins.
Are small, dense networks of things appear as red or blue discoloration on the skin. Cause is unknown though appears to be genetically. Puberty, birth control pills, pregnancy, or hormone replacement therapy may contribute to them.
How do you treat spider veins?
Can be treated with laser. Light heats and scars the tiny superficial veins, which closes them off to bloodflow.
A condition of poor venous blood return to the heart. Most common cause of this is deep vein thrombosis, incompetence of venous valves and muscles that aid in venous return.
Chronic venous insufficiency
What are the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency?
Associated with poor blood flow include tissue congestion, edema, necrosis or skin atrophy, and pain upon walking.
What causes chronic venous insufficiency?
Advancing age, family history of DVT, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and smoking.
How do you treat chronic venous insufficiency?
Mild cases are managed with control diet and exercise and use of compression stockings. Surgical repair of veins including repairing of valves, bypassing incompetent veins, and vein stripping.
A clot can develop in the superficial or the deep veins of the lower extremities. Is accompanied by an inflammatory response to the vessel wall that results from the venous blood stasis, vessel wall injury, and increased blood coagulation.
What are the signs and symptoms of Venous thrombosis?
Not associated with symptoms in about 50% of patients. Those with signs and symptoms of inflammation, such as pain, swelling, and the muscle tenderness, are indications of venous thrombosis
How do you treat venous thrombosis?
Early detection to prevent emboli. Early walking after surgery or childbirth, exercising legs, and use of the compression stockings decrease risk for thrombus formation. Blood thinners are beneficial for patients with risk. Surgery can remove thrombus.
A disease of reduced coronary bloodflow most often do to atherosclerosis. Leading cause of death worldwide.
Coronary heart disease
What are the symptoms and signs of coronary heart disease?
Chest pain, or angina pectoris, palpitations, dizziness or fainting, weakness upon exertion or at rest, and shortness of breath. Devastating sign is cardiac arrest or heart attack.
How do you treat coronary heart disease?
Medications used include blood pressure lowering agents, blood thinners, diuretics, nitrates such as nitroglycerin, and lipid lowering medication. Lifestyle changes are important to prevent further progression. Angioplasty may be needed.
What happens if there is severe blockage of the coronary artery?
Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) reroutes blood flow around the clogged arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart. A segment of blood vessel from another part of the body is attached from the aorta to the coronary artery.
And inflammatory disease of the heart muscle. Viruses are most common, along with various bacterial infections.
What are the symptoms and signs of myocarditis?
Is often asymptomatic condition. Patients usually have a history of viral illnesses, fever, chest pain that may feel like a heart attack, shortness of breath, and tachycardia.
How do you treat myocarditis?
Goal of treatment is prevention of further myocardial damage through supportive measures. Bed rest and activity restriction help decrease myocardial work. Antibiotics may be prescribed where infectious organism has been identified.
A functional disease of the myocardium; has three types; dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive
A microbial infection that affects the endocardial endothelium and the heart valves. Occurs in adults and children with predisposing conditions. Caused by many species of bacteria and fungi which create nodules which break apart and enter bloodstream to form emboli.
What are the symptoms and signs of infective endocarditis?
Fever, chills, changing the sound of character of existing heart murmur, and evidence for embolization of vegetative lesions.
How do you treat infective endocarditis?
Immediate an extensive antimicrobial treatment to eliminate positive microorganism. Surgical interventions are indicated in cases where heart is severely damaged by the infection.
A sequela of infection by group A hemolytic streptococcus of skin, throat, or ear, although the organisms are no longer present when the disease presents itself.
Rheumatic heart disease
What happens in rheumatic heart disease?
Rheumatic fever (autoimmune disease) results from a reaction between streptococcal antigens and patients antibodies. Blood clots deposit on the inflames valves, forming nodular structures called vegetations along edge of costs. Fibrous tissue develops which has a tendency to contract. Mitral valve becomes stenotic.
How do you treat rheumatic heart disease?
Prompt treatment of the streptococcal infection with antibiotics can prevent rheumatic fever and its complications.
Mitral valve opening is narrow, and the costs that form the valve become rigid and fused together. Deep funnel shaped develops, increasing resistance to bloodflow from the left atrium to left ventricle. Congestion builds in veins, fluid leaks out into tissue spaces causing edema.
What causes mitral stenosis?
Predominant cause is rheumatic fever, which causes inflammation of valve leaflets. Leaflets may stick together and/or form rigid scar tissue.
How do you treat mitral stenosis?
Vals may be widened to restore blood flow. Valve may be surgically replaced with metal alloy or pig valve.
The valve is unable to close completely, which allows blood to leak into the atrium each time the ventricle contracts. Blood pressure increases in other vessels, including pulmonary artery, resulting in lung congestion.
Mitral regurgitation (mitral insufficiency)
What causes mitral regurgitation?
Sclerosis or retraction of valve cusps Also caused by mitral valve prolapse, where papillary muscles failed to contract, and cusps open upward toward atria.
The narrowing of the valve leading into the aorta, more frequently in men than women. May result from rheumatic fever, or arteriosclerosis.
What happens in the aortic stenosis?
Characterized by rigid costs that bad here together and deposits of hard to calcified material which gives a warty appearance to the valve, and causes inadequate blood supply due to stenosis.
Aorta does not close properly. With beats relaxation, blood flows back from aorta into left ventricle. Backflow causes ventricle to dilate, become exhausted, and eventually fail. May result from inflammation within heart, or aortic dilation.
What are the symptoms and signs of aortic regurgitation?
Backflow of blood in the left ventricle increases, diastolic blood pressure falls, and the left ventricle and larges. Most persons remain asymptomatic for a number of years until symptoms of heart failure, dyspnea. Only sign is a heart murmur.
Abnormal heart rhythm, develop from in regularity in impulse generation and impulse conduction.
Rapid heartbeats of greater than 100 bpm
Abnormally slow heart rate of less than 50 bpm
Results when impulses are blocked, causing the atria and ventricles contract independently of one another
What are symptoms and signs of cardiac arrhythmia?
Palpitations, syncope or lightheadedness, fainting edema, or shortness of breath.
What causes cardiac arrhythmia?
History of coronary heart disease, heart valve disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, metabolic diseases, smoking, and drug abuse.
How do you treat cardiac arrhythmia?
Includes antiarrhythmic medications, electrocardioversion, and catheter ablation
A condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the blood and oxygen needs of the other body organs.
Congestive heart failure
What are the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure?
Mild symptoms include ankle swelling and shortness of breath with exertion. Severe signs and symptoms include shortness of breath at rest, fatigue and limb weakness, neck veins swelling, rales, pulmonary edema, cyanosis, and abnormal heart sounds.
How do you treat congestive heart failure?
Aimed at relieving the symptoms, improving quality of life, and halting progression. Treatment includes correction of underlying causes, medications, restriction of salt and water intake, and modification of activities and lifestyle that are consistent with functional limitations of the patient.
A life-threatening condition in which blood pressure drops too low to sustain life. Any condition that reduces the hearts ability to pump effectively or decreased venous return can cause this.
What does shock do?
The low blood pressure results in an inadequate blood supply to the cells of the body. Major causes of shock include cardiogenic, hypovolemic, anaphylactic, septic, and neurogenic shock.
What are the two different divisions of congenital heart disease is?
Cyanotic and non-cyanotic
One of the most serious congenital heart defects and consist of four abnormalities: (1) ventricular septal defect, (2) narrowing of the pulmonary outflow channel, (3) miss placed a order that crosses interventricular septum, and (4) hypertrophy of the right ventricle
Tetrology of Fallot
What causes Tetrology of Fallot?
Maternal history of rubella, poor nutrition, overuse of alcohol, history of diabetes, and maternal age over 40. Heredity may play a role. Children with you know disorders such as down syndrome often have congenital heart defects.
What are the symptoms and signs of Tetrology of Fallot?
Difficulty feeding, failure to gain weight, Port development, cyanosis, crying or defecation, fainting, sudden death, clubbing of the fingers, and squatting during episodes of cyanosis.
How do you treat Tetrology of Fallot?
Surgical repair is most often used for all children with this defect. More than one surgical procedure is required to fix all defects.
The aorta and the pulmonary artery connect to the wrong ventricle. Merry artery is attached to the left ventricle, and aorta is attached to the right ventricle.
Transposition of the great arteries
What are the symptoms and signs of transposition of the great arteries?
Cyanosis, shortness of breath, poor feeding, and clubbing of the fingers.
How do you treat transposition of the great arteries?
Prostaglandins are administered to maintain a patent ductus arteriosus and allow mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Corrective surgery within the first 2 to 3 weeks of life is essential for long-term survival.
May occur between the two atria, or between the two ventricles. These can be detected by the presence of a heart murmur on the physical examination. Blood in the right heart will be a mixture of deoxygenated blood and oxygenated blood that has transversed the left side of the heart
What are the symptoms and signs of septal defects?
Small ASDs may cause no symptoms, while large any ASDs can lead to significant overload of right ventricle. A VSD causes increased blood flow to the lungs causing severe pulmonary hypertension. Both require surgical correction.
The ductus arteriosus serves as fetal connection between pulmonary artery and they were there. This allows blood to bypass the nonfunctional fetal lungs. At birth, the ductus arteriosus normally closes. If ductus remains open, blood intended for the body heat flows from a ordinal to the lungs.
Patent ductus arteriosus
How do you treat patent ductus arteriosus?
Treated medically with anti-inflammatory medications to close that PDA and antibiotics to prevent endocarditis. Surgery may be performed.
A congenital narrowing of the aorta that can occur anywhere along its length. Most commonly occurs more doctors arteriosus. Increases in resistance to the left ventricle and can eventually lead to heart failure.
Coarctation of the aorta
What are the symptoms and signs of coarctation of the aorta?
In severe cases, symptoms include dizziness, shortness of breath, and cold legs. A harsh murmur is heard on the back with a stethoscope.
How do you treat coarctation of the aorta?
Surgery is often recommended to enlarge the narrowing of the aorta.
With age, the cardiovascular system is less able to respond to increases in workload and stress; therefore
Thresholds for symptoms of cardiovascular disease become more common with needs.