Flashcards in Diseases Of The Musculoskeletal System Deck (48):
What are the signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis?
Pain, redness, heat, chills, fever, tachycardia, nausea, weight loss
How do you treat osteomyelitis?
What causes rickets?
Deficiency of vitamin D; such as milk and exposure to sunlight and causes bones to not ossify in childhood
What are the symptoms and signs of rickets?
Deformations of bones, knock-knee, bowleg, curved spine, nodular swellings at rib ends and joints, enlarged and square head, flaccid muscles
How do you treat rickets?
Vitamin D fortified milk, sunlight, cod liver oil
What causes osteomalacia?
Caused by inadequate dietary vitamin D and dietary deficiency of calcium or phosphorus (in adults)
What are the symptoms and signs of osteomalacia?
Muscular weakness, weight loss, pain in bones, deformation of bones, easily fractured bones
How do you treat osteomalacia?
Vitamin D fortified milk, sunshine, cod liver oil, calcium and phosphorus supplements
What causes osteoporosis?
Calcium deficiency, and decreased bone density
What are the symptoms and signs of osteoporosis?
Decreased height from vertebral compression fractures, curvature of the spine, easily fractured bones
How do you treat osteoporosis?
Pain relief, fracture treatment, some medical treatment.
What is Paget's disease?
Results in overproduction of bone, particularly in the skull, vertebrae, and pelvis.
What causes Paget's disease?
It is idiopathic, thought to be genetic
What are the signs and symptoms of Paget's disease?
Enlarged skull, nerve compression curvature is in spine, and deformed legs
How do you treat Paget's disease?
Surgical, though it is limited
What causes bone tumors?
Idiopathic, commonly metastatic
What are the signs and symptoms of bone tumors?
Painless lump in bone tissue, fracture without trauma
How do you treat bone tumors?
Is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease, is a systemic inflammatory disease that affects several joints in the surrounding muscles. Neutrophils are attracted to the joint space and cause destruction.
What are the symptoms and signs of rheumatoid arthritis?
Pain and stiffness in joints, swollen, red, warm joints, bilateral involvement, exacerbation and remission, rheumatoid nodules, crippling deformities, can affect ANY joints
How do you treat rheumatoid arthritis?
Mild exercise, anti-inflammatories, steroids
What are the two different kinds of osteoarthritis?
Primary; occurs with normal aging, and secondary; is associated with joint injury, trauma, or obesity.
What are the symptoms and signs of osteoarthritis?
Aches, pain, stiffness in joints, limited range of motion, muscle weakness around affected joint, enlarged joints, bone spurs; may involve only one joint
How do you treat osteoarthritis?
Pain relief, mild exercise and rest, heat applications, steroids, surgery
What causes gout?
Inherited defect in uric acid metabolism leads to higher levels of urate and uric acid deposition in joints. Sometimes follows a minor injury or excessive eating or drinking.
What are the symptoms and signs of gout?
Severe pain, heat, swelling, redness in affected joint; acute onset
How do you treat gout?
Analgesics, hot and cold compresses, colchicine, probenecid
What causes septic arthritis?
Bacterial infection of a joint
What are the signs and symptoms of septic arthritis?
Pain, redness, swelling, bone and joint destruction
How do you treat septic arthritis?
What causes bursitis?
Overuse of a joint
What are the signs and symptoms of bursitis?
Pain at a joint, especially during use
How do you treat bursitis?
Moist heat, analgesics, steroids, rest
What causes carpal tunnel syndrome?
Repetitive use of the wrist causes compression of the nerve in the wrist
What are the symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome?
Numbness and tingling of hand, pain radiating to shoulder, limited finger movement, severe at night
How do you treat carpal tunnel syndrome?
Splinting hand and wrist, surgery
What causes muscular dystrophy?
Defect in X-linked gene for muscle protein dystrophin
What are the signs and symptoms of muscular dystrophy?
Weakened muscles, muscles may enlarge as fat is deposited; muscles degenerate
How do you treat muscular dystrophy?
Physical therapy, orthopedic procedures
What causes myasthenia gravis?
An auto immune disease in which nerves fail to transmit an impulse for contraction of the muscles. Lack of stimulation and use leads to muscle atrophy and muscle weakness.
What are the symptoms and signs of myasthenia gravis?
Fatigue, muscle paralysis
How do you treat myasthenia gravis?
Thymectomy, anticholinesterase drugs, steroids, immune suppression
What causes osteomyelitis?
An infection by staphylococci are carried by the blood to the bone from some other site in the body, such as infection adjacent to the bone.
This disease occurs when bacteria spread to the bones from the lungs. Commonly affects areas at the ends of long bones and knees.
Tuberculosis of the bone
What are the symptoms and signs of Pott's disease?
Tuberculosis of the vertebrae of children, leading to deformity and paralysis.
What is myasthenia gravis primarily affecting?
Review questions on page 434