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Pathology 2210 > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (69)
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1

Define Cancer:

A class of diseases characterised by uncontrollable cell division and the ability of these cells to be able to invade other tissues by invasion or metastasis

2

Define Invasion:

The direct growth of cancer into an adjacent tissue

3

Define Metastasis:

The migration of cancer cells to distant sites

4

Define Neoplasm:

A new and abnormal tissue growth

5

For Benign Tumours, what is their;

Growth Rate:
Character of Growth:
Tumour Spread:
Cell Differentiation:

Slow
Expansion
Remains localised
Well Differentiated (It's structure mimics normal tissue)

6

For Malignant Tumours, what is their;

Growth Rate:
Character of Growth:
Tumour Spread:
Cell Differentiation:

Fast
Infiltration (Can send processes into other tissues)
Metastasises
Can range from well to poorly differentiation

7

In general prefix + oma means that the tumour is________

Benign

8

What do these prefixes mean?
Adeno-
Angio-
Chondro-
Haemangio-
Lymphangio-
Fibro-

Adeno = Has a glandular structure
Angio = Vessels
Chondro = Cartilage
Haemangio = Blood vessels
Lymphangio = Lymph vessels
Fibro = Fibrous tissue

9

Is a Papilloma/Polyp benign or malignant?

Benign

10

What is a Carcinoma?

A malignant tumour that arises from the epithelial cells

11

What is a Sarcoma?

A malignant tumour that arises from non-epithelial cells

12

What some exceptions to the prefix + oma = benign rule?

Melanoma
Lymphoma

13

Colon/rectal, breats and prostate cancers are believed to be linked with ______________________

Diet and lifestyle choices

14

Liver cancer is associated with ________________

The Hepatitis virus

15

Cervix/Uterine cancer is associated with ____________

Human Papilloma Virus

16

How do we deal with benign tumours?

1. Ignore it if it isn't affecting function (e.g. Lipoma)
2. Remove it if it is large or in the way
3. Remove it if it could cause damage to surrounding tissues/organs (e.g. benign brain tumour)
4. Remove it due to malignant potential (colon polyps)

17

How common are Breast Fibroadenomas

- Very common especially in young women
- May be left or removed (due to pain or other symptoms or patient concern)

18

What is a Breast Fibroadenoma?

Characteristically well-circumscribed benign tumour of the breast fibrous and glandular tissue

19

Breast Fibroadenomas usually present as __________________________ that is _______, ______, _______ and not _______

Single Discrete mass
Smooth, rubbery, mobile and not tender

20

Breast Fibroadenomas respond to __________ and _________ and therefore can change in size over the _____________.

Oestrogen and Progesterone
Ovarian/Menstrual Cycle

21

Breast Fibroadenomas _______ progress to malignancy

Do not

22

How do we diagnose Breast Fibroadenomas?

Ultrasound
Biopsy
Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA)

23

How do we treat Breast Fibroadenomas?

Can be left or removed (due to symptoms {pain} or patients wishes)

24

What is a Meningioma?

A generally benign tumour of the meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord

25

Meningiomas are unlikely to _________. They are removed due to the ____________________________

Metastasise
Damage they cause the brain due to increased pressure

26

Colon Polyps are ________ tumours of the colon and are usually _________

Benign
Asymptomatic

27

Colon polyp incidence _________ with age and is screened for by using a ____________

Increases
Colonoscopy

28

Cancer is a multi-step process that results from the accumulation of ___________ and __________ alterations

Genetic and Epigenetic

29

What genetic factors can affect cancer developent?

Gain/Loss of Chromosomes or Chromosome pieces
Presence of oncogenes

30

What is an oncogene?

A gene whose activation by mutation or inappropriate expression leads to an increased ikelihood of cancer