Flashcards in Leukocytes Deck (47):
Leukocytes are derived from ___________________
A common Hameopoietic Stem Cell
Haemopoeitic stem cells are _________ and are __________
When HSCs divide one cell becomes ___________________ and the other becomes ____________
Becomes dedicated to a particular lineage
Lineage commitment is dependent on _________, ________, _________ and ___________________.
Other signally molecules
Give 3 examples of lineage-commitment specific cytokines
EPO = Erythropoietin commits cells to the erythroid lineage
G-CSF = Commits cells to the granulocyte lineage
TPO = Thrombopoietin commits cells to the Megakaryocyte lineage
The process of lineage commitment and maturation can be __________ at any point
Early precursor cells are usually found ___________________ and maturing forms are found ___________________
Adjacent to Trabecular bone
Deeper in the marrow space
What is the composition of Bone marrow haematopoietic regions?
Neutrophils comprise ___ to ___ of WBC count. They develop from _________ in the _________
Neutrophils are characterised by:
- 3-5 nuclear segments
- Cytoplasmic granules (Primary and Secondary)
- 9-15um in diameter
Primary granules are made during the ___________ stage, an important granule component is ___________________.
Secondary granules are made during the _________ stage
Neutrophils generally leave the circulation by following ____________ this is called ________. To do this they have to ___________________.
Rearrange their cytoskeleton
For efficient phagocytosis targets need to be __________ with __________ or ____________. These are recognised by ________________.
Immunglobulin (Ig) or Complement protein
During phagocytosis temporary __________ called _______ encircle the particle before ingestion
What are the 2 pathways used to destroy pathogens?
Fusion with the primary or secondary granules
Generation of reactive oxygen species
Neutrophils can abnormalities in _________________ or ________________. This may increase the risk of ____________.
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are composed of _________________ studded with __________________. They allow pathogens to be killed ___________, however this results in _________.
What is NETosis?
A unique form of cell death caused by the use of NETs b neutrophils. It is due to the progressive loss of intracellular membranes which causes the cell membrane to rupture.
How are NETs formed and what induces this?
Generated through ejection of intracellular components, it can be induced by:
- Reactive Oxygen Species
- Antibodies and Antibody-Antigen Complexes
- Activated by platelets
What is Neutrophilia?
Increased Neutrophil count 10-50 x 10^9 per L
- There is increased granulation and Dohle bodies and cytoplasmic vacuoles are present
- Nucleus lobes maybe also appear as one, "left shift" neutrophils
What causes Neutrophilia?
- Acute Inflammation
- Steroid and cytokines
What is Neutropenia?
Decreased Neutrophil count can be classed as
Mild = 1-1.9 x 10^9 per L
Moderate = 0.5-0.9 x 10^9 per L
What is the normal range for Neutrophil count?
2-8 x 10^9 per L
What causes Neutropenia?
- Autoimmune disease
- Presence of Anti-granulocyte antibodies aka Immune neutropenia
- Some Haematological disorders
Eosinophils are characterised by:
- 2-3 nuclear lobes
- Granule filled cytoplasm, usually more densely packed than neutrophils
- 12-17um in diameter
Eosinophils are _________ at killing bacteria than neutrophils. They bind to ____ and ____ coated _________. They are capable of developing _____ and are also involved in _______________.
IgG and C-3 coated
Eosinophilia is often caused by _________, __________ and _________________.
Basophils are characterised by:
- 2 nuclear segments
- Large round cytoplasmic granules that overlie the nucleus
- 12um in diameter
Basophils play a role in ______________ and the response to _________. They have receptors for ___, ___, ___, _________ and __________.
IgG, IgE, C5a, Histamine and Chemokines
Basophils release _________ on activation.
Basophilia is very ________. It occurs _________________________.
Only in malignancies like Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)
Monocytes are characterised by:
- Horseshoe shaped nucleus
- Faint blue-grey cytoplasm
- Cytoplasmic Vacuoles
- 15-30um in diameter
Monocytes are __________ but they cannot be seen clearly on the microscope. They contain _________, ________, ____ and _________
Coagulation system proteins
Monocytes are able to respond to _________________ in order to move. When they enter the tissues they can form ___________. These cells are capable of _______________ and can release chemicals that can ________ or _________ immune response
What is Monocytosis?
An increase in the number of Monocytes
Monocytosis is associated with ________ and ________. Rarely we see persistent Monocytosis, this is usually due to _________________________.
Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukaemia
Lymphocytes are characterised by:
- Round and slightly indented nuclei
- Mature Chromatin
- Scant blue cytoplasm
- 7-12 um diameter
Give a brief summary of B-cells:
- Mature in the bone marrow and lymph nodes
- 5-25% of the lymphocytes in blood are B-cells
- Produce antibodies
- Undergo genetic changes to optimise receptor binding
Give a brief summary of T-cells:
- Mature in the thymus
- 70-85% of the lymphocytes in the blood are T-cells
- They are involved in cell-mediated immunity
- Can act as APCs or cytotoxic cells
Give a brief summary of NK cells:
Large Granular Lymphocytes are characterised by:
- Larger size
- More voluminous blue cytoplasm
- Contain Azurophilic granules
Large Granular Lymphocytes are commonly _____ and occasionally ______
NK cells and occasionally T-cells
Lymphocytosis is an increase in ______________. It is commonly seen in _____________, __________ and __________
Malignant Lymphocytosis is common in ____________. It can be from the _ or _ cell lineage but is commonly from the _ lineage. It ______ be identified based on morphology
B or T
Plasma cells are end stage _____ that can produce _____________. They are ______ found in the blood