Flashcards in Inflammation and Repair Deck (19)
What are the signs of Inflammation?
Loss of Function (Sometimes)
What are the causes of acute inflammation?
Infections and Microbial Toxins
Physical and Chemical agents (Burns, Frostbite, environmental chemicals)
Foreign Bodies (Splinters)
Immune Reactions (Specifically Allergic reactions)
What are the steps required for inflammation?
Down-regulation of the response once finished
Some bacteria express _______, ___ viruses express it
Mannose, no viruses express it
Explain the process of phagocytosis:
1. Foreign body is recognised and bound to receptors on the phagocyte
2. Foreign body is engulf by the cell membrane
3. Membrane containing the foreign body pinches off and becomes a phagosome
4. Lysosome fuses with phagosome, forming a phagolysosome
5. Foreign body is destroyed
Leukocytes are generally _________, and require _________
Explain the process by which leukocytes move towards the area in need of an inflammatory response:
1. Macrophages/Mast cells release a chemokine that induces an immune response
2. When these reach the blood vessels they stimulate the epithelial cells to express molecules which can bind tot leukocytes
3. Leukocytes move across the blood vessel wall
4. Leukocytes then move towards the area of greatest concentration of the chemokine
Cell-derived mediators are _________ mediators that come from __________________. They act ________ and are activated when __________.
Inflammatory, cells in circulation
Act alone, activated when secreted
Plasma-derived mediators are _________ mediators that come from ______ in the _________. They act ________ and require _________.
Inflammatory, cells in the liver
In cascades and require activation
Purulent inflammation is inflammation that produces a large amount of ____. This is causes by ________ bacteria.
What is pus made of?
Pyogenic bacteria, nectroic cells
What are abscesses?
A collection of purulent inflammation in a confined space or deep within tissue
Fibrinous inflammation is inflammation that occurs when _______ leak out of the blood vessel and affect _____
Explain how fibrinous inflammation occurs:
1. Fibrinogen enters the tissue and is cleaved to form fibrin
2. If not broken down and removed during resolution can lead to scarring
Serous inflammation is inflammation that is caused by _______________ entering into the tissues
Fluid from the blood
Ulcerous inflammation causes ___________ in tissue surfaces due to _________________________.
Shedding of necrotic tissue
How do we resolve (cease) the inflammatory response?
1. Return blood vessels to their normal permeability
2. Drain excess fluid and proteins into the lymph and pinocytosis by macrophages
3. Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils and debris
4. Disposal of macrophages
Give a brief overview of the healing process:
1. Inflammation removes dead and damaged tissue
2. Entry and proliferation of CT and parenchymal cells
4. Synthesis of Extracellular matrix
5. Tissue remodels
6. Wound contracts
7. Wound is strengthened