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Flashcards in Inflammation and Repair Deck (19)
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What are the signs of Inflammation?

Heat (Calor)
Redness (Rubor)
Swelling (Tumour)
Pain (Dolor)
Loss of Function (Sometimes)


What are the causes of acute inflammation?

Infections and Microbial Toxins
Physical and Chemical agents (Burns, Frostbite, environmental chemicals)
Tissue Necrosis
Foreign Bodies (Splinters)
Immune Reactions (Specifically Allergic reactions)


What are the steps required for inflammation?

Initiating event
A response
Down-regulation of the response once finished


Some bacteria express _______, ___ viruses express it

Mannose, no viruses express it


Explain the process of phagocytosis:

1. Foreign body is recognised and bound to receptors on the phagocyte
2. Foreign body is engulf by the cell membrane
3. Membrane containing the foreign body pinches off and becomes a phagosome
4. Lysosome fuses with phagosome, forming a phagolysosome
5. Foreign body is destroyed


Leukocytes are generally _________, and require _________

Indiscriminate, activation


Explain the process by which leukocytes move towards the area in need of an inflammatory response:

1. Macrophages/Mast cells release a chemokine that induces an immune response
2. When these reach the blood vessels they stimulate the epithelial cells to express molecules which can bind tot leukocytes
3. Leukocytes move across the blood vessel wall
4. Leukocytes then move towards the area of greatest concentration of the chemokine


Cell-derived mediators are _________ mediators that come from __________________. They act ________ and are activated when __________.

Inflammatory, cells in circulation

Act alone, activated when secreted


Plasma-derived mediators are _________ mediators that come from ______ in the _________. They act ________ and require _________.

Inflammatory, cells in the liver

In cascades and require activation


Purulent inflammation is inflammation that produces a large amount of ____. This is causes by ________ bacteria.

Pyogenic bacteria


What is pus made of?

Pyogenic bacteria, nectroic cells


What are abscesses?

A collection of purulent inflammation in a confined space or deep within tissue


Fibrinous inflammation is inflammation that occurs when _______ leak out of the blood vessel and affect _____



Explain how fibrinous inflammation occurs:

1. Fibrinogen enters the tissue and is cleaved to form fibrin
2. If not broken down and removed during resolution can lead to scarring


Serous inflammation is inflammation that is caused by _______________ entering into the tissues

Fluid from the blood


Ulcerous inflammation causes ___________ in tissue surfaces due to _________________________.

Shedding of necrotic tissue


How do we resolve (cease) the inflammatory response?

1. Return blood vessels to their normal permeability
2. Drain excess fluid and proteins into the lymph and pinocytosis by macrophages
3. Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils and debris
4. Disposal of macrophages


Give a brief overview of the healing process:

1. Inflammation removes dead and damaged tissue
2. Entry and proliferation of CT and parenchymal cells
3. Angiogenesis
4. Synthesis of Extracellular matrix
5. Tissue remodels
6. Wound contracts
7. Wound is strengthened


Give an overview of scar formation:

1. Macrophages release growth factors that attract fibroblasts that will form granulation tissue
2. Fibroblasts start to lay down new extracellular matrix (Collagen synthesis occurs 3-5 days after injury)
3. Granulation tissue becomes scar
4. Vessels regress turning the scar pale