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Flashcards in Cancer biology Deck (20):
1

Do more people die of prostate or breast cancer

Prostate

2

Name the distinguishing hallmarks of cancer cells (7)

- Growth signals not required
- Don't respond to growth inhibition signals
- Evades apoptosis
- Defect in DNA repair
- Cells immortal
- Metastasise
- Angiogenesis

3

Do proto-oncogenes act by loss of gain of function?

Gain

4

Name 4 potential 'gains of function' a proto-oncogene can experience

Translocation or transpostion
Gene amplification
Point mutation in control element
Point mutation in gene

5

What specific molecular change happens in BCL2 mutation and what does this cause?

Translocation/ transpostion causing proto-oncogenes to gain function
Follicular lymphoma

6

What specific molecular changes happens in ErbB2 or HER2 mutations and what does this cause

Gene amplification
Breast cancer

7

What specific molecular changes happen in c-Fos and what does this cause

Point mutation within a control element
Skin cancer

8

What specific molecular change happens in c-H-ras and what does it cause

Point mutation within the gene (GGC to CTG)
Bladder cancer

9

Name 5 classes of oncogene

Growth factors
Growth factor receptors
Signal-transduction proteins
Transcription factors
Anti-apoptotic proteins

10

What 4 things can be caused by EGFR overexpression (signalling molecule mutation)

Colorectal cancer
Pancreatic cancer
Lung cancer
Non small cell lung cancer

11

What 4 things can be caused by Ras mutation

Pancreatic cancer
Papillary thyroid cancer
Colon cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer

12

What 3 things can be caused by B-Raf mutation

Melanoma
Papillary thyroid cancer
Colon cancer

13

Function of Bax?

Anti-apoptotic

14

Function of p53?

Prevents cell from leaving G1

15

Do tumour suppressor geens act by loss of gain of function?

Loss

16

Give 2 examples of a gatekeeper TSG

P53
pRb

17

Give 2 examples of a caretaken TSG

BRCA
MMR

18

Give an example of a pro apoptotic TSG

Bax

19

Name 5 features of benign tumours

-Slow growing but progressive
- Mitotic figures rare
- Non invasive
- Non metastasising
- Well differentiated

20

Name 5 features of malignant tumours

- Fasting growing
- Numerous abnormal mitotic figures
- May ulcerate
- Local invasion
- May metastasise