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Flashcards in Surgery Deck (12):

What 3 forms of diagnosis can be used to confirm a case of cancer?

Histological diagnosis
Invasive diagnosis


5 roles of surgery for cancer

- Diagnostic
- Curative
- Staging
- Palliative
- Reconstructive


Give 3 examples of diagnostic surgery for cancers

- Laparoscopy prior to gastric cancer
- Excision of lymph node to guide neoadjuvant treatment
- Access for excision biopsy


What is the aim of surgery if the cancer is localised

To remove the solid tumour with clear margins


How is a margin defined post surgery

Histological confirmation that there is a good length of health tissue from microscopically visible cancer cells


What are the 4 principles of curative surgery

1) Localised cancer removal
2) Balance between removing all cancer and removing healthy tissue
3) Avoid morbidity by maintaining function
4) Ensure quality of life acceptable to patient


How is breast conserving surgery carried out?

Wide guided excision of tumours
Tumour bed radiation to reduce recurrence
Systemic treatment with chemotherapy/ hormonal/ biological therapy


What are the preferred outcomes of breast conserving surgery

Reduced morbitity
Better quality of life
Reduced recurrence
Prolonged disease free survival


3 treatment options for colorectal cancer

Colectomy and anastomisis with temporary stoma
Colectomy with permenant stoma
Colectomy without a stoma


Why is laparoscopic surgery preferable than open

- Less pain so faster recovery
Reduced complications such as herniation, infection, ileus
Reduced hospital stay


5 ways that surgery can be used in palliative treatment

Evaluation of extent of disease
Control of locoregional spread
Control of fungating tumour
Control of pain
Surgical reconstruction


3 examples of reconstructive surgery in cancer treatment

Reversal of stoma
Breast reconstruction
Flaps and skin grafting