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Flashcards in cancer cells Deck (8)
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characteristics of cancer cells

Anchorage Independent (grow when anchored or liquid)

Insensitive to pop density

replenished telomeric shortening

block apoptosis/ pass checkpoints


How cancers spread

cancers leave tissue of origin, move thru blood stream, invade another tissue and grow (metastasis)


What causes cancers

Environment- carcinogens, UV radiation, viruses

Hereditary factors- 10-20% of all cancers


What are Proto-oncogenes/ oncogenes

proto- encode pro. that stim cell division, inhibit cell differentiation, halt death


What are tumour suppressor genes

in normal cells encode pro. that inhibit cell division


How are proto oncogenes converted to oncogenes

point mutation, gene amplification, chromosomal translocation, local DNA rearrangements, Insertional mutagenesis


P53 + RB tumor suppressor genes

P53- regulates cell cycle and function, most frequently mutated (1/2 all cancers)

RB- if the gene mutated early in life ], the pro. is inactivated and results in development of retinoblastoma cancer


Stepwise accumulation of mutations in oncogenes

1. APC mutation- Early benign tumor

2. KRAS mutation- intermediate benign tumor

3. SMAD4 mutation- late benign tumor

4. P53- localized cancer