Carbohydrate Metabolism Basics Flashcards Preview

MCAT biochemistry > Carbohydrate Metabolism Basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrate Metabolism Basics Deck (27):
1

A monosaccharide is
& its molecular formula is

a single carbohydrate molecule also known as a simple sugar'
CnH2nOn

2

Two monosaccharides bonded together is

A disaccharide

3

A few monosaccharides bonded together is

A oligosaccharide

4

Many monosaccharides bonded together is

polysaccharide

5

The bond between two simple sugars is referred to as

a glycosidic linkage

6

Glycosidic linkage bond is formed how?

Through a dehydration reaction that require enzymatic catalysis

7

Sucrose is made up of which two monosaccharides?

glucose and fructose

8

Lactose is made up of which two monosaccharides?

galactose and glucose

9

How are monosaccharides created in order to be used in metabolic pathways (thus be used for energy)?

Through hydrolysis of polysaccharides - enzymatic catalysis is necessary to move reaction forward but still favored thermodynamically

10

In cellular respiration, the high-energy electron carriers are?

NAD+ and FAD (NADH and FADH2 before oxidation)

11

NADH and FADH2 both serve as

enzymatic cofactors

12

The four step process of glucose being oxidized to produce CO2 and ATP is

glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), Krebs cycle, and electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation

13

primary protein structure refers to the

amino acid sequence that makes up a protein

14

secondary protein structure refers to the

arrangement in space of the peptide backbone of a protein
*only two bonds have free rotation

15

in secondary protein structure, alpha-helix are

side chains that radiate out from the helix axis

16

in secondary protein structure, the alpha-helix contain hydrogen bonds that are

parallel to the helix axis

17

in secondary protein structure, the alpha-helix coil is what direction

clockwise (right-handed)

18

in secondary protein structure, beta-sheet are

side chains that alternate forces of the sheet

19

in secondary protein structure, beta-sheet strands orientation are

parallel (polypeptide stands run in same direction) or anitparallel (polypeptide stands run in opposite direction)

20

in secondary protein structure, beta-sheet is stabilized by

hydrogen bonding between the NH and CO groups in backbone

21

tertiary protein structure refers to

the interactions of side chains
hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions
covalent/non covalent interactions
electrostatic interactions

22

tertiary protein structure, van der Waals forces occurs between

nonpolar side chains

23

tertiary protein structure, hydrogen bonding occurs between

polar side chains (Ser, Thr)

24

tertiary protein structure, disulfide bonds occur between

cysteine residues

25

tertiary protein structure, electrostatic interactions occur between

amino acids with opposite charge thus acidic and basic side chains thus attraction
amino acids with like charge thus repulsion

26

quaternary protein structure refers to

interactions between polypeptide subunits
dimers, trimers, tetramers

27

quaternary protein structure have noncovalent interactions such as

electrostatic, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions