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Flashcards in carbohydrates Deck (22)
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1

What is a monosaccharide

One molecule of a carbohydrate

2

What is a triose monosaccharide

A monosaccharide with three carbons

3

What is a pentose monosaccharide

One with five carbons

4

What is an isomer

Molecules with the same chemical formula and same bonds but different arrangement of atoms

5

What is the formula of glucose

C6H12O6

6

What is the difference between beta glucose and alpha glucose

Alpha glucose has the H on top and the OH on the bottom on carbon 1 Beta glucose has the OH on top and the H on bottom on carbon 1

7

What is the formula and function of fructose

C6H12O6 fruit sugar

8

What is the formula, and function of ribose

C5H10H5 pentose sugar in RNA

9

What is the formula and function of galactose

C6H12O6 milk sugar

10

What is a disaccharide

Two molecules of carbohydrates bonded by glycosidic bonds

11

How are disaccharides formed

Condensation reaction as water is formed in the process

12

Give three examples of disaccharides and what they're made up of and where they are found

Maltose - alpha glucose + alpha glucose (barley)Sucrose - glucose + fructose (sugar)Lactose - glucose + galactose (milk sugar)

13

How do you reverse the reaction of monosaccharides to form disaccharides

Hydrolysis Adding water

14

What is a polysaccharide

Many molecules of carbohydrates

15

Give examples of polysaccharides

StarchGlycogen Cellulose Chitin

16

Describe starch

Helical structures good for storage Insoluble Made of amylose and amylopectin Alpha glucose

17

What is amylose

Up branched Made of 1-4 bonds

18

What is amylopectin

Branches 1-4 and 1-6 bonds

19

Describe glycogen

Alpha glucose 1-4 and 1-6 bonds More branches so more ends for the enzymes to more rapidly break it down

20

Describe cellulose

Made of beta glucoseStructural Monomers have to be inverted for OH and H to line upThey have alternative glycosidic bonds Weak hydrogen bonds and strong covalent bonds forming micro fibrils Arranged in layers at alternating angles

21

Describe chitin

Beta glucose StructuralForm the exoskeleton of insects and fungal cell walls 1-4 linked monomers Strong waterproof and lightweight

22

What angle are the layers in chitin at and what does it form

180Microfibrils