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Flashcards in classification Deck (32)
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1

what is classification

reflecting evolutionary relatedness
use a phylogenetic method
evolutionary history can be shown using a phylogenetic tree

2

what is taxonomy

the identification and naming of organisms

3

what is a hierarchy

a system of ranking in which the small groups are components of larger groups

4

what is a taxon

any group within a system of classification

5

what does discrete mean

they can only be classified into one group

6

what are the three domains

archaea
eubacteria
eukaryota

7

what is archae

bacteria - generally which has an unusual metabolism or characteristic

8

what is eubacteria

eg salmonella - prokaryotes

9

what is eukaryota

plantae animalia fungi and protoctista

10

what are the five kingdoms

plantae
animalia
fungi
prokaryote
protoctista

11

characteristics of eukaryote

uni or multicellular organelle and nuclear membranes

12

characteristics of prokaryote

unicellular,, no membrane bound organelles, no nuclear membrane, non cellulose cell wall

13

what is the phylogenetic hierarchy

kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species

14

how are organelles placed in the phylogenetic hierarchy

placed into groups (taxons) based on their increasing similarity

15

characteristics of prokaryotic

single celled
no nucleus
mesosome in some
70s ribosomes
no ER
no vacuole
cell wall made of peptidogcylan
saprophytic, parasitic or autotrophic feeders
no nervous coordination

16

characteristics of protoctista

eukaryotic
single or multi cellular
nucleus
mitochondria
some have chloroplasts
80s ribosomes
ER
some have a vacuole
cell wall - cellulose - none
nutrition - heterotrophic or autotrophic
no nervous coordination

17

characteristics of plantae

eukaryotic
multicellular
nucleus
mitochondria
chloroplasts
80s ribosomes
ER
large central vacuole
cellulose cell wall
autotrophic feeders
no nervous coordination

18

characteristics of fungi

eukaryotic
single celled
nucleus
mitochondria
chloroplasts
80s ribosomes
vacuole

19

what is the binomial system and what is it made up of

organisms are given 2 latin names
first is the genus and second is the species

20

what are the advantages of the binomial naming system

unambiguous and allows us to see what is closely related

21

what is a species

a group of similar organisms that have certain features in common
the similar anatomically and biochemically
capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring

22

what is the morphological defintion

if 2 organisms look very similar they are likely to be members of the same species. sexual dimorphism needs to be taken into account
juveniles will look different

23

what is biodiversity

number and variety of organisms found within a specified geographic region
the variety of different types of life found on earth and variations within a species
refers to the variety of life on earth at all its levels, genes to ecosystems

24

what is a homologous structure

a similar arrangement of component parts and a similar developmental origin but different functions

25

what is an analogous structure

have a corresponding function and similar shape but different developmental origin

26

what is a pentadactyl limb

a limb with 5 digits

27

what is divergent evolution

a common ancestral structure has evolved and performs different functions e.g. pentadactyl

28

what is convergent evolution

structure evolve similar properties but have different developmental origins such structures are analogous e.g. butterfly, sparrow, bat

29

describe the process of natural selection

1) all living organisms show genetic variation due to gene mutations
2) those with favourable genes are more likely to survive
3) surviving organisms reproduce and pass on the favourable gene to their offspring
4) over tie the favourable allele becomes more highly represented in the population

30

give examples of physiological traits

-mammals and birds are endothermic and must avoid wasting energy trying to maintain body temp in the cold
- during hibernation a polar bear resets its body thermostat to use less energy so body temp drops to 2c
- leaves fall off deciduous plants when the temp and light decrease in autumn. this way they do not lose water by transpiration