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Flashcards in Cardiac Biomarkers 2 Deck (23)
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What is the universal definition of an MI?

1. rise and/or fall of cardiac biomarkers (pref. troponin) with at least 1 value above the 99th percentil reference limit with one of the following:

ischemic symptoms
EKG changes
pathological Q waves
Imaging evidence for new loss of viable myocardium or wall abnormality
IC thrombus on angiography or autophy


What is the pathopysiology of acute coronary syndrome?

unstable plaque
plaque rupture
intracoronary thrombus formation
reduced blood floow
myocardial ischemia
myocardial necrosis


What are the three different proteins complexed together in cardiac troponin?

TnC (binds the Ca)
TnI (Actomyosin-ATP inhibition subunit)
TnT (tropomyosin binding subunit)


Which is better for MI diagnosis - troponin T or troponin I measurements?

doesn't matter - they're diagnostically equivalent.


What group of patients will have a increased prevalence of TnT elevations? Is this a false positive?

renal failure

this is not a false positive - they still have an MI, and they have a worse prognosis


What are the three cytosolic isoenzymes of creatine kinase?



True or false: CK-MB is specific for myocardium?

false - it's more prevalence in cardiac tissue, but there's also some in brain and skeletal


Do we use CK-MB to diagnose ACS anymore?

nope - troponin is way better

but you can use it if a troponin assay isn't available for whatever reason


What do we use CK-MB for them?

1. can be used to estimate infarct size (but we don't do this regularly either)


Which will identify more patients at risk: a sensitive troponin assay with slightly more imprecision or an insensitive assay with excellent precision?

sensitive with more imprecision


A troponin with



What are some causes of (relatively) chronic troponin elevations (and thus, why we care more about the trend to diagnose an MI)?

cardiac procedures
non-cardiac, but major procedures
heart failure
renal failure


What constitutes a significant change in troponin trend?

Frustrating, it's not well-defined and will change depending on the assay

if the troponin level was close to the 99th percentile, suggest a change of at least 3 standard devisions, as determiend by the individual lab

or evidence for a serial increase or decrease of over 20% is required if the initial value is elevated


At what time points should you measure the delta?

in theory between 0 and 3 hours and between 0 and 6 hours


How does hemolysis affect troponin measurement?

can increase or decrease depending


What are the pros and cons of using POC troponin testing int he ED?

It increases turnaround time and decreases length of stay in the ED, but it has lower analytical precision, sensitivity. It's not cheaper and it hasn't improved patient outcomes (maybe has even worsened outcomes)


Troponin can also be elevated in heart failure, so what do you do when faced with an acute heart failure patient with a positive troponin in the ER?

carefully consider clinical context and talk with cardiology or PCP


How is BNP cleared

degraded by neutral endopeptidase, NP receptors and passive removal by multiple organs


How is NT-proBNP cleared?

renallly, so interpretation in CKD patients is problematic


Which is has the longer half-life - BNP or NT pro?



Is there a diagnostic difference between BNP and NT-proBNP?

no, they generally correlate very well except NT-proBNP concentrations are higher due to the longer biological half-life


Which gender typically has a higher BNP?



How does BMI affect BNP levels?

more likely to have a false negative in obese individuals because adipocytes participate in the removal of NPs from circulation