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Flashcards in cardio Deck (277):
1

Pt with a history of Hodgkin lymphoma presents with systolic dysfunction (decreased ejection fraction, narrowing pulse pressure, and JBD)

Dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to doxorubicin treatment

2

Which class of antiarrythmics should be avoided in DM pt's due to their ability to mask hypoglycemia?

Beta blockers

3

In a pt with Pulmonary HTN and an allergy to sulfa drugs, which medication should be recommended for diuresis?

Ethacrynic acid - only non sulfa-based loop diuretic
Acetazolamide, Furosemide, HCTZ all contain sulfa

4

A Turner patient is likely to have which two cardiac anomalies?

Coarctation of the aorta
Bicuspid aortic valve

5

Pt presents with hypotension, JVP, and pulsus paradoxus. Condition and ECG findings?

Tamponade
Alternations of QRS height with each beat (electrical alterans)

6

Child presents to ED for arrythmias due to an underlying congenital condition. These arrythmias are worsened by AV nodal block

Wolff-Parkinson-White
The pt has an AV accessory tract that bypasses the AV node going straight from the atrium to the ventricle

7

Loop diuretics are commonly given for what condition and how do they work?

Dilated cardiomyopathy
Block the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in the loop of Henle.

8

A young female from Guatemala dies suddenly while lifting a heavy object. Her only cardiac history is a new murmur that started 3-4 years ago. Bx at autopsy shows an area of perivascular fibrinoid necrosis within the myocardium

Rheumatic heart dz
Histology describes an Aschoff nodule

9

Nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, diaphoresis suggests?

angina secondary to acute coronary syndrome (MI)

10

Pt with a rumbling late diastolic murmur preceded by an opening snap heard over the apex

Mitral stenosis due to a previous step pharyngitis infection (rheumatic heart dz)

11

Cardiac symptoms associated with SLE

Libman-Sacks endocarditis
Small sterile vegetations on BOTH sides of the mitral valve
SLE pt

12

In a patient with atrial flutter (rapid succession of identical atrial depolarization waves following ST elevation) why would you choose to administer esmolol over metoprolol

It is short acting
Good trial drug to see if the pt can tolerate a Beta Blocker

13

Pt with a history of HTN and DM in the ED with complaints of severe chest pain radiating to the lower back and asymmetric pulses in the upper extremities. What is the potentially fatal complication of this condition?

Pt has acute aortic dissection
Complication = rupture into any body cavitiy, including causing obstructive shock due to tamponade (most common COD)

14

PT with CHF exacerbation and peripheral edema becomes tachypneic following treatment. Crackles and tactile fremitus present bilaterally. What medication is responsible?

Mannitol
Furosemid is first line treatment to diures a CHF pt and spironolactone has been shown to improve mortality.
Mannitol is contraindicated because the pt can become hypernatremic and have worsening pulmonary edema due to volume expansion.

15

What is the difference between direct-acting and indirect-acting sympathomimetics?

Direct-acting enter the CNS less readily than the indirect acting
Direct-acting bind postsynaptic adrenergic receptors, these are more selective.
Indirect-acting cause catecholamine release from pre synaptic terminals (amphetamine)

16

Young African male with fever, weight loss, diffuse myalgias and arthralgia, abdominal pain. Areas of ulceration and mottled purple discoloration on his lower extremities. Past medical history significant for HTN and Hep B. Elevated WBC count, ESR, and CRP

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)
Necrotizing immune complex inflammation of medium-sized, muscular arteries.
Histology would show fibrinoid necrosis
ANA, and RF negative

17

35 year old with no medical history presents with progressive shortness of breath occurring with activity, weight gain, with a recent history of a URI. Cause of the heart failure?

Viral myocarditis (coxsackie, influenza, adenovirus, echovirus, CMV, HIV)
Causes CHF secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy. Direct cytotoxicity via receptor-mediated entry of virus into cardiac myocytes

18

In a patient with pheochromocytoma what medication will antagonize the vascular and cardiac action of NE?

Letalol - non selective alpha and beta receptors
NE acts on a1, a2, and b1
vascular = a1
Cardiac = b1

19

Vessel associated with 3rd aortic arch?

Common carotids, internal carotids

20

Vessel associated with 5th aortic arch?

None. This arch regresses

21

Vessel associated with 1st aortic arch?

Maxillary a.

22

Vessel associated with 4th aortic arch?

ascending arch of the aorta, proximal portion of subclavian

23

Vessel associated with 2nd aortic arch?

Stapedial, hyoid a.

24

Vessel associated with 6th aortic arch?

pulmonary a.

25

Neonate with patent PDA probably due to mother experiencing what during pregnancy?

Rubella

26

CMV during pregnancy causes?

mental retardation, microcephaly, deafness

27

Effects of epinephrine

a1, a2, b1, b2 stimulation
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle
Vasodilation (b2) in small dose
Vasoconstriction (a1) in large dose
Increased HR and contractility (b1)

28

Effects of phenoxybenzamine

nonselective and irreversible alpha antagonist

29

MI and renal occlusions lead to what type of necrosis?

Coagulative

30

Treatment used to abolish AV nodal arrhythmias such as paroxysmal supraventricular tachy (PSVT)

Adenosine
Slows conductions through the AV node via cellular hyperpolarization

31

Fibrates increase HDL by increasing the activity of?

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha)

32

A healthy man has a loud S1 and a wide split S2. During inhalation and exhalation the split remains fixed.

Atrial Septal Defect
Defect in interatrial septum due to deficient tissue

33

What is increased dromotropy?

Increase in conduction velocity through the AV node due to increased inward Ca

34

What is increased inotropy?

Increased contractility due to increased inward Ca

35

What is increased chronotropy

Increase in heart rate due to an increase in the firing rate of the SA node due to increase in the inward Na current

36

Occlusion of which vessel would jeopardize blood supply to the vertebral a.?

Subclavian a.

37

Turner's syndrome is associated with preductal or postductal coarctation of the aorta?

Preductal
Commonly presents with a smaller left arm to to compromised flow in the left subclavian a.

38

What item in a patients history would make a physician advise against using a nonselective beta blocker, such as timolol, for HTN

Asthma
Don't want to antagonize bronchial beta 2

39

What effect do beta blockers have on:
HR
Stroke volume
MAP

All decreased
Negative chonotropic - decrease hr
Negative ionotropy - decrease contractility and SV. This decreases CO and MAP

40

A pt with Monday dz presents to the clinic. What is a serious complication of this exposure?

Cardiac arrest
Monday dz = withdrawl from occupational nitroglycerine exposure. Vasodilation on work days and vasoconstriction on the weekends

41

Older male Pt with fatigue, muscle pain, weight loss x 3 mo. Unusually dark stools, palpable purpura along extremities. Reddish sputum. Bx = necrotizing vasculitis with lesions at the same age

microscopic polyangiitis
p-ANCA
Can cause glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaries late in dz

42

At birth, what incidental finding is suggestive of an underlying congenital abnormality

A single umbilical a.
Carries deox blood from fetus to mom

43

How does the heart accommodate the increased oxygen demand during a stress test?

Increased coronary a. diameter and increased coronary blood flow

44

Sudden death following an MI is caused by?

Arrhythmia due to abn re entry currents

45

What is the positioning of the internal jugular vein within the carotid sheath

In internal jugular vein is lateral to the common carotid a. and anterior to the vagus nerve

46

kid with fever, conjunctivitis, erythema of the oral mucosa, cervical lymphadenopathy

Kawasaki dz
small and medium vessels
Tx - supportive care
At risk of developing coronary aneurysms and MI

47

If a pt is crashing and has hypotension and clammy skin, activation of which receptors will have the most rapid increase in artherial pressure

Stimulation of a1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle
vasoconstriction = venous return
Use NE to achieve this
B2 = vasodilation

48

Pt with progressive fatigue and a diastolic rumbling murmur

Mitral stenosis secondary to rheumatic fever. See a drop in LA and LV pressure

49

A pt that takes captopril and HCTZ is wanting to get pregnant. What would you change?

D/c captopril, increase dose of HCTZ
ACEI and ARBs are contraindicated in pregnancy
Safe for preggo: HCTZ, labetalol, methyldopa, beta block, CCB, hydralazine

50

What is recommended for management of acute HTN during pregnancy

Labetalol
methyldopa

51

Which beta blocker is used to treat arrhythmia by prolonging repolarization of the AP

Sotalol
Has class II and III properties. Class III prolongs repolarization by blocking outward K

52

Pt with the crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur, dyspnea, exertion, fatigue, syncope, angina, late pulses, LVH

Aortic stenosis
calcification of the valve leaflets from proliferate and inflammatory changes

53

5 year old female with cracked lips, red palms and soles, conjunctivitis, cervical lymphadenopathy

Kawasaki dz
Coronary aneurysm is a feared complication
Self limiting

54

which vasculitis dz spares the lungs?

Polyarteritis nodosa
ANCA -

55

Necrotizing vasculitis. Asian infant. Conjunctivitis, rash, adenopathy, strawberry tongue, hands and feet

Kawasaki
CRASH
Potential for coronary aneurysms
Tx - IVIG, ASA

56

Younger male with heavy smoking with gangrene

Buerger dz
Tx - smoking cessation

57

Poor pulses in extremities, young asian women, high ESR

Takayasu

58

Port wine stain following trigeminal n.

Sturge-Weber dz
At risk of seizures

59

hemangioma in kids

Strawberry hemangioma
Spontaneous regression

60

Drugs that can cause SLE?

Procainamide
Quinidine
Minocycline
Isoniazid
Valoproate
Hydralazine
Penicillamine
Sulfasalazine

61

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome treatment that can cause hypothyroidism like side effects

Amiodarone
Class II antiarrhythmic
Can also cause hyperthyroidism, pulmonary fibrosis, photodermatitis

62

Effect of carotid massage in arrhythmias?

Slowed SA node automaticity and slowed conduction velocity through the AV node

63

Mechanism of beta blockers

Decrease in Na and Ca currents
Inhibit the Gs and decrease intracellular cAMP
Decreases slope of phase 4

64

Which HTN drug also slows the damaging effects of DM on the renal and CV systems

ACEI

65

6 hours post MI bx would show contraction bands on microscopy due to?

Elevated intracellular Ca

66

Brown atrophy of the heart in an older patient is caused by?

Lipofuscin
"wear and tear" pigment that deposits in organs in the elderly

67

Bx of myocardium in a pt with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Disarray of bundles of myocytes and sarcomeres within cells

68

A young male pt has syncope with activity. S4 gallop at the apex, mild systolic ejection murmur at LLB. Decreases in intensity when he squats and increases with Valsalva. Dx and tx

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Beta blocker (Atenolol) or cardica specific Na channel blocker (verapamil)
S4 due to stiff hypertrophied ventricle
ejection murmur = obstruction of outflow tract due to enlarged septum

69

A pt with stable angina is given sublingual nitroglycerine inorder to do?

Decrease preload, decreases myocardial oxygen demands

70

A pt presents to the ED with chest pain but cardiac enzymes are negative and ECG is normal. Dx?

GERD

71

Sensory nerve fibers are in which horn of the spinal cord?

Posterior

72

Histologically the Aschoff bodies in rheumatic heart dz contain?

Multinucleated giant cells and large Anitschkow cells

73

A 67 year old woman was started on a new HTN drug and is now complaining of fatigue, drowsiness and depressed mood. The drug is?

Clonidine
alpha2 agonist - can cause dry mouth, constipation, ED, sleep disturbance, HA, confusion

74

Which peptide hormone regulates HTN by increasing urinary output and decreases total peripheral vascular resistance?

ANP from atrial cardiomyocytes
Effect is prolonged by neprilysin
Seen in Systolic HF because it causes a back up of fluid

75

An MI with ischemia along the inferior surface of the heart is caused by occlusion of?

Right coronary a.
Unless pt has left dominant circulation

76

When comparing the averages of two groups of people, what statistical test is best?

Two ample t-test

77

When comparing raw values in categorical data, which statistical test is best?

Chi squared

78

A pt with familial Pulmonary HTN has likely developed this condition due to

Vascular smooth muscle proliferation due to BMPR2
AD, but does follow a two hit hypothesis

79

When verapamil is added to a pt's history, it will cause vasodilation by relaxing smooth muscle but has no effect on skeletal muscle. Why?

Skeletal m. does not depend on extracellular calcium influx

80

A pt with a new murmur has a culture positive for strep gallolyticus (S. bovis). Additional work up should include?

Colonic neoplasia
S. gallolyticus = group D strep that causes subacute endocarditis that is part of the normal flora of the colon and is associated with colon cancer.

81

Where is the AV node located?

endocardial surface of the RA, near the insertion of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve and the orifice of the coronary sinus.

82

Where is the SA node located?

Upper anterior RA at the opening of the SVC

83

Acquired QT prolongation is most often caused by which class of medications?

Class Ia III and antiarrhythmics (quinidine, stalol), abx (macrolides, fluoroquinolones), methadone, antipsychotics (haloperidol)

84

What is sotalol?

Class III antiarrhythmic (K+ blocker) used to treat a fib by prolonging the action potential, but this can cause QT interval prolongation

85

What does permissiveness refer to when two drugs are administered together?

one hormone allows another hormone to exert is maximal effect (ie cortisol potentiates NE by upregulating alpha1 receptors)

86

A couple of months after initiating ACEI therapy and pt presents with angioedema. Why?

Bradykinin accumulation
Symptoms are similar to hereditary C1 inhibitor deficiency
NO pruritus or uticaria

87

A pt is found unconscious in apt and is bradycardic on exam. Symptoms improve following glucagon administration. Why?

Pt OD'd on beta blockers causing depressed contractility, bradycardia, and varying degrees of AV block.
Glucagon increases intracellular cAMP and increases cardiac myocyte contractility within minutes.

88

What is coronary steal?

When a vasodilator is administered to a pt with a pt with an atherosclerotic plaque. Causes blood to flow away from the occluded vessel and further underperfuse the tissues fed by the occluded vessel

89

In a pt with mitral regurgitation, what would increase the forward flow of blood?

Decreasing LV afterload

90

Bx of myocardial tissue 2 hours post MI?

Normal
Minimal change 0-4 hrs

91

holosystolic murmur that increases in intensity during inspiration

Tricuspid regurgitation

92

In a pt with a hx of mitral valve prolapse presenting with infective endocarditis caused by S. viridians, what is the adherence site for these bacteria?

Fibrin-platelet aggregates
S. viridians produces dextrans which adhere to fibrin. this is why they require a host with a previously damaged mitral valve

93

Cause of death in digoxin toxicity?

Arrhythmias

94

How does atenolol affects cAMP levels in:
Cardiomyocytes
Juxtaglomerular cells
Vascular smooth muscle

Atenolol = b1 selective antagonist, inhibits Gs
Cardiomyocyte, juxtaglomerular cell - decreased
Vascular smooth muscle - no change

95

Nitrates increase in the intracellular levels of cGMP which in turn does what?

Decreases activity of myosin light-chain kinase and myosin light chain dephosphorylation - vascular smooth muscle relaxation

96

What determines the severity of symptoms in a kid with tetralogy of Fallot?

Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction
Significant RVOT shunts more deoxy blood across the VSD to the aorta making a cyanotic kiddo

97

What is the function of dobutamine?

Beta adrenergic agonist. Agonist at B1
Activates Gs to increase adenylate cyclase activity and increase [cAMP].
Positive inotrope, chronotrope
No vascular effect

98

What is responsible for the rapid idecrease in cytoplasmic calcium levels in cardiomyocyte relaxation?

Na/Ca exchanger

99

A pt presents with hypotension, distended jugular v. and clear lungs due to?

RV MI
See decreased CO, Pulmonary cap wedge pressure
Increased CVP

100

What is kussmaul sign?

Paradoxical rise in JVP with constrictive pericarditis. This is caused by volume-restricted RV is unable to accommodate the inspiratory increase in venous return

101

What is safe to use on a pregnant woman with a DVT?

Low molecular weight heparins. Do NOT cross the placenta
enoxaparin

102

Which antiarrythmic prolongs the QT interval and has the lowest incidence of torsade de pointes

Amiodarone
Class III antiarrhythmic used in SVT and ventricular arrhythmias. Inhibit outward K+

103

NO is made from which amino acid?

arginine

104

Most likely cause of widening pulse pressure?

Aortic regurgitation

105

What could be given to a pt with a prolonged PR interval to better control their HTN?

Nifedipine (dihydropyridines; also amlodipine, felodipine)
Acts at vascular smooth muscle causing vasodilaiton. No cardiac activity

106

Which congenital cardiac abnormality is associated with cerebral aneurysms?

Coarctation of the aorta
Likely the aneurysm is a berry aneurysm in the circle of willis

107

Concentric ventricular hypertrophy is caused by?

Hypertension
Decreases chamber size in the ventricle, leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and decreases cardiac contraction force

108

An MI presents in leads I and aVL. Which artery is occluded?

Left circumflex a.
Lateral aspect of LV

109

How do you measure the degree of severity in mitral stenosis?

A2-to opening snap time interval (length of time between S2 and opening snap
shorter = more severe

110

In a pt with decompensated heart failure, what systems are triggered in an attempt to compensate for the decreased CO?

RAAS and sympathetic nervous system
Causes increased afterload (vasoconstriction), excess fluid retention, and deleterious cardiac remodeling

111

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is caused by a mutation in?

Mutations in the sarcomere: Beta-myosin heavy chain, myosin-binding protein C
AD

112

A pt with a rare vascular tumor that is associated with arsenic or polyvinyl chloride exposure. Tumor is CD31+. Dx?

Livery angiosarcoma
CD 31 = Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1)

113

An isolated enterococci strain substitues D-lactate for D-alanine in PPG synthesis. This decreases pentapeptide binding for which abx?

Vanco
binds D-ala D-ala

114

On autopsy a pt has multiple small nondestructive masses attached to the edges of the mitral valve leaflet. Masses are made of platelet rich thrombi but negative for bacterial growth. Cause?

Advanced malignancy
Platelet rich thrombi = nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

115

A pt is started on low dose chlorthalidone monotherapy. What would be expected to change in his serum levels?

Cholesterol
Thiazides reduce secretion of insulin and uptake of peripheral glucose - worse blood glucose in DM pts
increases LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels

116

A pts autopsy demonstrates a LA with diffuse fibrous thickening and distortion of the mitral valve leaflets, commissural fusion at the leaflet edges, narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. Dx?

Mitral stenosis secondary to rheumatic fever

117

A pt presenting with exertional dyspnea has an enlarged coronary sinus on echo. Dx?

Pulmonary HTN
The coronary sinus communicates directly with the RA and will become dilated by anything that causes dilation of the RA, usually elevated RA pressure is caused by Pulmonary HTN

118

Prior to initiating statin therapy, which lab value should be checked?

Liver transminase levels (LFTs). Statins increase risk of hepatotoxicity and muscle toxicity

119

A pt found under a tree after a storm has fixed publis, fern leaf pattern of erythematous marks and second degree burns. COD?

Cardiac arrhythmia
Lightning injury

120

After BNP/ANP bid a receptor (ANP receptor), what happens?

guanyl cyclase converts guanosine-5-triphosphate to cGMP leading to vaso=dilation (similar to NO and sildenafil)

121

Sildenafil increases cGMP levels by inhibiting

Phosphodiesterase 5 (decreases cGMP degredation)

122

A pt with a family history of MI's and stroke is most likely to develop atherosclerotic plaques in which vessel?

Abdominal aorta
after the abd aortia in order: coronary a., popliteal a. , internal carotids, circle of Willis

123

In a pt with severe aortic regurgitation (due to IE), what maintains CO?

Increase in LV SV

124

A pt with milk plasma is at the greatest risk of developing?

Acute pancreatitis, lipemia retinalis, xanthomas
Pt has familial chylomicronemia

125

Most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death in a pt with an acute MI?

Ventricular fibrillation

126

What changes are seen in irreversible cell injury?

Mitochondrial vacuolization and phospholipid-containing amorphous densities occur in irreversible damage
mitochondrial swelling = reversible

127

Pt with fatigue and dyspnea has a murmur that is best head when he sits up and leans forward

Aortic regurgitation
Peak intensity right after aortic valve closure

128

Most likely side effect of isosobride dinitrate?

Throbbing headaches, cutaneous flushing, lightheaded, hypotension, reflex tachy
Tx used in angina, causes systemic vasodilation

129

Spironolactone acts on the?

late distal tubule and collecting duct
antagonize ADH which normally wastes K+ in order to retain fluid

130

A pt has neary total occlusion of the LAD but there is no evidence of necrosis despite chest pain. why?

atherosclerotic plaques that grow very slowly can be compensated because arterial collaterals develop around the point of occlusion.

131

At autopsy a pt's cardiac tissue shows endocardial thickening and fibrosis of tricuspid and pulmonary vales

Carcinoid heart dz
deposits of fibrous tissue in the endocardium lead to tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonic valvulopathy and right sided HF
Dx with 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) which is an end product of serotonin metabolism

132

3 symptoms characteristic in carcinoid syndrome?

episodic flushing, secretory diarrhea, wheezing

133

If the left renal v. is compressed between the aorta and superior mesenteric a., what is the pt at risk of developing?

Varicocele

134

A pt with a bicuspid aortic valve is likely to develop?

Aortic stenosis in his 50's
Vs senile calcific stenosis which presents around 65

135

Beta blockers reduce blood pressure through what two mechanisms?

1. Reducing myocardial contractility and hr
2. Decreasing renin release (beta 1 receptors on juxtaglomerular cells

136

A arterial bx on a pt with girant cell arteritis will be most similar to a bx of a pt with?

Takayasu (tends to target the aortic arch)
Granulomatous inflammation of the media

137

On EKG, a delta wave suggests?

Wolff-Parkinson-White

138

In the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque, which cells are involved first?

Endothelial cells

139

What is the pathological change in a pt with a AAA?

Chronic transmural inflammation
Leads to degredation of elastin and abn collagen remodeling

140

Which drug class can increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure and slows hr?

Selective alpha 1 agonist (phenylephrine, methoxamine)
Vasoconstriction increases blood pressure, baroreceptors in the carotid sinus will cause reflexive brady

141

In the setting of a fib, which organ is least likely to have an infarct?

Liver, because it has dual blood supply

142

In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the intensity of the murmur will increase with which murmur?

Standing
Decreases preload

143

Why do pregnant women get supine hypotension?

Decreased venous return due to obstruction of the IV by the uterus

144

a Pt with afib is put on a medication to control his heart rhythm, but this medication increases his risk of?

Torsades de pointes due to QT prolongation
Caused by class III antiarrhythmics (sotalol, amiodarone, dofeticide)

145

What is pulsus paradoxus?

Exaggerated drop (>10 mmHg) in systolic bp during inspiration
Assoc with: cardiac tamponade, severe asthma, COPD, and constrictive pericarditis

146

A pt with pulsus paradoxus presents with dyspnea, tachypnea, prolonged expiration and bilateral wheezing. Dx and tx?

COPD
Beta-adrenergic agonist (increases intracellular cAMP

147

PDA's are derived from which aortic arch?

6th

148

a pt presents to ED with HA and oliguria and a bp of 240/150. Dx and pathology?

Hypertensive crisis (diastolic pressure >130)
Onion-like concentric thickening of arteriolar walls due to laminated smooth muscle cells (SMC) and reduplicated basement membranes. This thickening causes renal artery stenosis which activates RAAs and skyrocket the bp(malignant nephrosclerosis)

149

A pt hospitalized for dyspnea has macrophages with golden cytoplasmic granules that turn dark blue with Prussian blue staining. Dx?

HF due to LV dysfunction. Caused increasedpulmonary pressure and edema. This caused alveolar hemorrhage and RBC's ere phagocytized by macrophages. Prussian blue stain detects iron
hemosiderin laden macrophages (siderophages)

150

Most common cause of a crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur in an elderly pt?

Aortic or pulmonary stenosis due to calcified valve (hemodynamic stress, atherosclerotic inflammation)
Intensity does not correlate to severity

151

What would be seen on histology 1-3 days post MI?

Coagulation necrosis (loss of nuclei, striations), PMN infiltrate

152

What would be seen on histology 3-7 days post MI?

Disintegration of dead PMNs and myofibers. Macrophage infiltration at the borders

153

What would be seen on histology 7-10 days post MI?

Phagocytosis by macrophages
Begin to form granulation tissue

154

What would be seen on histology 10-14 days post MI?

Well developed granulation tissue with neovascularization

155

What would be seen on histology 2wks-2mo post MI?

Progressive collagen deposition and scar formation

156

What medication could improve a pts HTN and urinary flow?

Alpha 1 - antagonist (promote urinary flow and vasodilation)
Used in BPH and HTN
No effect on the heart
Doxazosin, Prazosin, Terazosin
SE's - orthostatic hypotension, vertigo

157

When are beta blockers indicated in a pt with HTN?

1. Evidence of coronary artery dz
2. CHF

158

What is the first line treatment of essential HTN?

Hydrochlorothiazide
DCT - blocks reasorbtion of Na, Cl and water
Avoid in pts with DM, gout, or hypercalcemia

159

At autopsy a pt has a thicker myocardium around the RV than the LV. Dx?

Pulmonary HTN
RVH due to cor pulmonale

160

What is the progression of vascular changes in a pt with pulmonary HTN?

1. Muscularization of small a.
2. Medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia
3. Intimal fibrosis (onion skinning)
4. Formation of capillary tufts (plexiform lesion)

161

A boy that has excessive bleeding following minor trauma has:
Bleeding time WNL
PTT WNL
PT long
Deficiency?

Factor VII
Extrinsic Pathway
(WEPT)

162

An otherwise healthy young pt has syncope and prolonged QT interval. What is the pathology?

Mutation in the membrane potassium channel proteins
K+ determines the the cardiac myocyte AP

163

How do you distinguish the two congenital syndromes that cause QT prolongation?

1. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome = ar, with neurosensory deafness
2. Romano-Ward syndrome = AD, no deafness
Both will predispose the pt to torsades de pointes -> syncopal episode -> sudden cardiac death

164

Arrange the conduction velocity through the heart from fastest to slowest

Purkinje system
Atrial muscle
Ventricular muscle
AV node
"Park at Venture Ave"
Making the purkinje system the fastest ensures that the heart contracts in a bottom-up fashion

165

A pt has repeat episodes of Prinzmetal (variant) angina
(occurs at night, transient ST elevation, no coronary dz on stress test)
What is most likely to trigger the chest pain?

Dihydroergotamine = migraine tx. Constricts vascular smooth muscle via stimulation of alpha-adrenergic (partial agonist) and serotonergic receptors
Coronary vasospasm does cause brief myocardial ischemia
Other triggers: cigarettes, cocaine, amphetamines, triptans

166

An elderly pt has a sigmoid shaped ventricle at autopsy. LM shows increased collagen and myocytes with a brownish perinuclear cytoplasmic inclusion. Dx?

Normal aging

167

At autopsy a pt has amyloid deposition in the cardiac atria with no other organ involvement. Amyloid is most likely composed of which polypeptide fragment?

Natriuretic peptide
Precursor proteins for localized amyloidosis:
cardiac atria = ANP
Thyroid gland = calcitonin
Pancreatic islets = islet amyloid protein (amylin)
Cerebrum/cerebral blood vessels = Beta amyloid
Pituitary gland = prolactin

168

Following sudden cardiac death, what is seen on autopsy?

Massive cardiac hypertrophy and myofiber disarray
Dx = Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, most common cause of SCD in athletes

169

A pt with a hx significant for stroke presents with hematuria and renal infarction on CT. Dx?

Thromboemboli most likely from a fib
Emboli from LA or ventricular clots or valvular vegetations etc.

170

What is the best way to monitor anticoagulation in a pt receiving warfarin?

Porthrombin time
International Normalized Ratio
Use a PTT to monitor heparin

171

pt presents with fatigue, lightheadedness following a URI. Hypotensive, tachycardic. Pulse is unpalpable during inspiration and JVD. Dx?

Cardiac tamponade
Hypotension + pulsus paradoxous + elevated JVP and muffled heart sounds.

172

Pt presents with occasional dizziness. On doppler U/S a pt has retrograde flow in the left vertebral a. instead of normal anterograde flow. Which artery is most likely to occluded?

Left subclavian
Subclavian steal syndrome occurs due to severe stenosis of the proximal subclavian a. which leads to reversal in blood flow from the contralateral vertebral a. to the ipsilateral vertebral a.
Syx are related to arm ischemia and vertebrobasilar insufficiency

173

A pt is put on heparin for DVT. He develops right sided weakness and facial droop. Head CT reveals L sided middle cerebral a. stroke. What would be found on PE?

Splitting of S2 that does not change with respiration
Paradoxical embolismoccurs when a DVT crosses into the arterial circulation via an abn connection between the right and left cardiac chambers.
Atrial L to R shunt causes wide and fixed splitting of S2 and facilitate paradoxical embolism due to periods of transient shunt reversal (ie coughing)

174

What is the typical progression of a strawberry angioma?

First increase in size and then regress
Grow in proportion to the growth of the child, before eventually regressing. Usually regress by 7.

175

Describe the flow of ions in a cardiac pace maker cell.

Phase 0 (upswing) - Calcium in
Phase 3 (downswing) - Potassium out
Phase 4 (maintain action potential) - Inward Na+

176

An IVDU has endocarditis with Staph aureus. The pathology of her chest pain is most similar to?

PE secondary to DVT
The cause of pleuritic chest pain is septic emboli dislodged from the tricuspid valve

177

Co-administration of a statin and a fibrate increases a pts risk of?

Myoglobinuria due to rhabdo

178

A pt presents with recurrent nose bleeds and telangiectasias. Dx?

Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
AD, telangiectasis occasionally rupture and cause epistaxis, GI bleed or hematuria

179

A pt is started on a ARB and HCTZ but we do not see any changes in his HTN or renin activity. Why?

Medication noncompliance
If he was taking his ARB we would see an increase in his renin activity

180

Older pt presents with sudden onset right arm weakness and difficulty speaking which resolved in 20 min. What SE is associated with the first line treatment for this?

GI bleeds
Aspirin
She most likely had a TIA, aspirin will help to prevent ischemic stroke

181

Following an MI ECG shows sT elevation in II, III, and aVF. Which vessel is occluded?

Right coronary a.
Ischemia of inferior wall in left ventricle. Can also see sinus node dysfunction

182

ECG shows elevation in V1-V4. Where is the occlusion?

Leeft anterior descending

183

ECG shows elevation in V5, V6 and some in I and vVL. Where is the occlusion?

Left circumflex

184

A 10 year old presents with restlessness and involuntary jerking. PE - rapid, irregular jerking movements involving his face arms and legs. Pt is at risk for developing?

Valvular heart dz
Pt is presenting with sydenham chorea - involuntary rapid irregular jerking movements of the face, arms and legs. Associated with group A strep and a major clinical manifestation of rheumatic fever.

185

Blood oxygen content will have the greatest difference between the aorta and?

Coronary sinus
Myocardial oxygen extraction exceeds that of any other tissue or organ in the body. Can only meet increased oxygen demand by increasing flow

186

Diastolic heart sound just before S1?

S4
Head in pts with reduced ventricular compliance (HTN related heart dz, aortic steonosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)
Caused by a sudden risk in EDP following atrial contraction

187

Pt with a fib and CHF presents with n/v and vision difficulties. Hyperkalemic. Which med is causing this?

Digoxin
Toxicity = cardiac arrhythmia and GI ipset and confusion/weakness with visual syx
Elevated K+ due to inhibition of Na/K ATPase pumps

188

Type of necrosis seen following an MI?

Coagulative necorsis

189

Pt has a mid-to-late systolic click over the apex. Dx and the abnormality was most likely caused by?

Mitral valve prolapse
Caused by defect in the mitral valve connective tissue that predisposes to myxomatous degeneration of the mitral leaflets and chordae tendinae
Murmur is reduced by squatting - increased venous return makes the leaflets more normally arranged

190

Diastolic murmurs

Mitral Stenosis
Tricuspid Stenosis
Aortic regurg
Pulmonic regurg

191

Compare obstruction of the SVC (SVC syndrome) to obstruction of the braciocephalic v.

SVC syndrome - Involves swelling of BOTH sides of the face, neck, chest, and arms
Braciocephalic - Involves swelling of the IPSILATERAL face, neck, chest, and arms (ie just symptoms on one side of the body)

192

Which type of collagen would be seen in the fibrosis of heart tissue?

Type I
Seen in most mature scars

193

If you see R to L shunting in an adult what defect is most common?

ASD, patent foramen ovale
Incomplete fusion of atrial septum primum and secundum
Common in adults after a stroke

194

Murmur with weak pulses

Aortic stenosis

195

Crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur at 2nd-3rd right sternal border

Aortic stenosis

196

Early diastolic decrescendo murmur along upper left side of sternum

Pulmonic regurg

197

Late diastolic decrescendo murmur at lower left sternum

Tricsupid stensosis

198

Pansystolic murmur at the apex radiating to left axilla

Mitral regurg

199

Late systolic murmur preceded by a mid-systolic click

Mitral valve prolapse

200

Crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur over 2nd and 3rd intercostal on left sternal border

Pulmonic stenosis

201

Pansystolic at LL sternal border radiating to the right lower sternal border

Tricuspid regurg (adult IVDU) or VSD (kid)

202

Rumbling late diastolic murmur with an opening snap over 5th intercoastal

Mitral stenosis

203

Continuous machine-like murmur

Patent Ductus arteriosis

204

High Pitched diastolic murmur with a wide pulse pressure

Aortic regurg

205

Why does squatting improve Tetrology of Fallot syx?

Increases systemic vascular resistance -> decreases Right to left shunting -> increases pulmonary blood flow -> improves oxygenation

206

Tyramine ingestions is a problem for?

MAOI's -> hyptertensive crisis
MAO = mitochondrail enzyme that degrades excess MAO NT's
It also detoxifies tyramine in the GI

207

A pt has elevated homocysteine due to a mutated methylene tetrahydrofolate reducatse. What molecule is he unable to make from homocysteine?

Methionine
Folate cycle is required to make methionine from homocysteine
Increased risk of thrombotic events due to endothelial damage
B6 deficiency would decreases his ability to convert homocystein to cystathionine -> cysteine

208

Elderly pt has Normal LV end systolic volume but elevated Pressure. Why?

Diastolic Heart failure = decreased ventricular compliance, normal LVEF and LV end diastolic volume but elevated LV pressure
Causes = HTN, obesity and infiltrative disorders (transthyretin-related amyloidosis, sarcoidosis)
LV diastolic pressure is determined by 1. LVED volume and 2. Ventricular compliance
Decreased compliance = increased pressure
Stiff heart

209

What can lead to dilated cardiomyopthy?

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
Doxorubicin therapy
Selenium deficiency
Viral myocaditis
Cause LV systolic dysfunction = Increased LV volume and pressure volume curve would shift right due to a thining ventricular wall (increased compliance, floppy heart)

210

What is tranthyretin?

Carrier of thyroxine and retinol
mutations -> misfolding -> amyloid protein that infiltrates the myocardium (hence infiltrative cardiomyopathy)

211

What is functional mitral regurg?

Product of hemodynamic changes. Increased preload (ie volume overload) can cause functional regurg
Eliminate murmur with preload reduction and afterload reduction

212

How do you calculate the number of individuals that would need to be treated to prevent a negative outcome in one pt?

Number needed to treat
NNT=1/ARR
Risk 1 - Risk 2 = ARR

213

Tx for diptheria?

IgG against circulating proteins

214

What are ways to calculate CO?

CO = SV x HR
CO = rate of O2 consumption/AV O2 difference

215

When do you use chi-square vs. ANOVA?

Anova - test the association between the means of two variables
Chi-square - measures the association between two variables

216

Thiamine deficiency causes?

Wernicke-Korsakoff
Beriberi - peripheral neuropathy, heart failure

217

Location of the aV node?

Interatrial septum near to opening of the coronary sinus

218

What causes a pt to have elevated systolic HTN but normal diastolic pressure

Aortic stiffening
associated with aging

219

Which medication can significantly prolong QT interval but low incidence of torsade de pointes?

Class III, class IA antiarrhythmics
Class I A - Disopyramide, Procainamide, Wuinidine
Class III (block outward K+) - Amiodarone, Dronedarone, Dofetilide, Sotalol

220

Which cardiac chamber is immediately anterior to the esophagus?

Left Atrium
TEE is able to visualize LA, atrial septum and mitral valve very well

221

What structure would be visualized immediately posterior to the esophagus on TEE?

Descending aorta
Useful if investigating dissection or aneurysm

222

How do arteriovenous shunts affect the hemodynamics?

Increased preload, decreased afterload
See LVEDP vs LVEDV curve shift to the right

223

Young pt, wide fixed split S2. Dx?

ASD
Need surgery to prevent chronic pulmonary HTN and Eisenmenger syndrome

224

Which component of the atherosclerotic plaque is capable of synthesizing structurally important collagen isoforms and extracellular matrix?

Vascular smooth muscle cells
Progressive plaque enlargement -> ECM remodeling and VSMC death -> increased plaque vulnerability
Fibroblasts are NOT involved in atherosclerosis and rarely found in the intima

225

Natriuretic peptides are metabolized by?

Neprilysin, a metalloprotease

226

Aortic dissections are typically triggered by?

When overwhelming hemodynamic stress leads to tearing of the aortic intima allowing blood to dissect the aortic media causing an intramural hematoma. Get medial stiffening due to decreased blood flow
Ascending aorta - class A
Descending aorta - class B

227

Tenderness on palpation at the sternal border

Costochondritis (costosternal syndrome, anterior chest wall syndrome ) - occurs after repetitive activity

228

What hemodynamic changes are seen in a chronic arteriovenous return

Increased CO (due to increased sympathetic tone, decreased peripheral resistance, increased venous return)
Acute AV - decrease TPR, increased CO, Wincreased venous return

229

Where does the ligamentum arteriosum connect to the aorta?

Descending aorta
Can be torn in sudden deceleration injuries (ie MVA)

230

PE finding in cardiac tamponade?

Drop in pulse amplitude during inspiration (Pulsus paradoxus)

231

What increases following dobutamine infusion

Myocardial oxygen consumption
Beta adrenergic agonist (mostly Beta 1)

232

Lab test to dx carcinoid?

Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
5-HIAA
See deposits of fibrous tissue in the endocardium on the right half of the heart

233

Pt presents with pericarditis 4 days post MI. Why?

Inflammatory rxn to cardiac muscle necrosis in the adjacent visceral and parietal pericardium
tx - aspirin

234

Pt presents with pericarditis 1wk-months post MI?

Dressler's syndrome
Pericardial inflammation due to autoimmune reaction to necrotic tissue

235

The primary event in an aortic dissection?

Focal intimal tear

236

The primary event in abdominal aortic aneurysm formation?

Transmural inflammation of the aortic wall
Leads to elastin degradation -> ABN collagen remodeling -> weakening of the aortic wall leading to aneurysm formation

237

How do you correct venous blanching at the site of NE infusion?

Alpha 1 antagonist prevent necrosis (phentolamine)

238

QT prolongation is due to a mutation in?

Membrane K+ channel proteins

239

Gram positive cocci that can synthesize dextrans from sucrose?

Strep viridians
Cause infective endocarditis following dental carries

240

Wide and fixed split S2

PFO
Can throw emboli and cause a stroke

241

What is the most important mediator of coronary vascular dilation?

Nitric oxide

242

A pt with Left sided HF (orthopnea and crackles) has pulmonary HTN due to?

Vasoconstriction due to pulmonary venous congestion

243

What decreases in exercise?

Total systemic vascular resistance
LVEDP - increases

244

Skull fx at the junction of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones causes damage to which vessel?

Maxillary a.
Fx at the pterion
Can cause an epidural hematoma (middle meningeal a.)

245

A pt has an acute MI with complete thrombotic occlusion. What is his COD?

Ventricular arrhythmias (v tach, v fib)
Most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the first 48 hours after an acute MI

246

Blood flow is equal to?

1/r^4

247

How do you determine the severity in mitral regurg?

Presence of an audible S3

248

What indicates L sided heart failure?

Supine dyspnea relieved by sitting up

249

A pt with rheumatic heart dz presents with dysphagia. Why?

Left atrium enlargement

250

How do you compensate for aortic regurgitation?

Increase in LV SV

251

The effects of adenosine are blocked by?

Theophylline (used in COPD pts)

252

A pt has a laterally directed anterior chest stab wound along the 5th intercostal space at the midclavicular line. What is at greatest risk of injury?

The left lung
All of the cardiac structures are medial to the midclavicular line (apex might reach the ACL but LV was not an answer option)

253

Cardiac manifestations in SLE?

Pericardial inflammation (most common, sharp chest pain relieved by sitting up and leaning forward
Libman-Sacks - fibrinous lesions on both sides of the heart valve, typically asymptomatic but can cause valvular insufficiency

254

2 most common cardiac findings in Marfan?

MVP - CHF (#2 COD)
Cystic medial degeneration of the aorta -> aortic dissection if untreated (#1COD)

255

Homocystinuria pts are at an increased risk of?

Thrombotic events (MI, stroke)

256

Opening snap with diastolic rumbling murmur over the apex?

Mitral stenosis
See this with mitral valve opening (bottom left corner on P-V loop)

257

Which class of medications cause QRS prolongation but little effect on QT interval duration?

Na+ channel blockers (phase I)
Na+ influences QRS
K+ - influences T wave

258

Following starting a new medication pt presents with second degree AV block. What is the med?

Nondihydropyridine Calcium channel blockers (Diltiazem, verapamil).
Av node block = negative chronotropic effect
Worsening HF in pts with reduced LV fxn

259

Pt is given metoprolol to improve headaches and HTN. How does this work?

Decreases level of circulating renin
Reduce contractility/hr

260

Why is po isosorbide dinitrate given at higher doses than sublingual nitroglycerin?

High first pass metabolism lowers bioavailability (undergoes hepatic metabolism prior to release into the systemic circulation)
Has nearly complete intestinal absorption

261

Polyarteritis nodosa will spare which artery?

Pulmonary
Segmental, transural, necrotizing inflammation of medium and small arteries.
Ischemia infarction or hemorrhage of most organs (incl skin in 33%) but lung is rarely involved

262

Pt dies 5 days post MI due to?

Profound hypotension
Rupture of the ventricle free wall
5-14 days post MI

263

MOA of ACh and adenosine?

Reduce the rate of spontaneous depolarization in cardiac pacemaker cells by prolonging phase 4
Literally stop their heart

264

What reduces the cytoplasmic calcium level during to promote muscle relaxation?

Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

265

MOA of dobutamine

activates Gs -> activates adenylate cyclase -> cAMP
B agonist, mostly B1
Enhances Ca2+ mediated myocardial contractility

266

In left dominant circulation, which vessel supplies the AV node?

Arises from the dominant coronary a.
So if left cominant, left circumflex a.
If right dominant -> righ coronary a.

267

What determines coronary dominance?

The coronary a. that supplies blood to the posterior descending a. (PDA)

268

Epinephrine + X will cause a rise in diastolic bp but no change in hr.

Propanolol
Epinephrine - increases systolic blood pressure (a1b1), hr (b1) and increases diastolic pressure at a low does
Pretreatment with a beta blocker will prevent vasodilation and tachycardia, but won't prevent vasoconstriction (a mediated)

269

Following a RVMI what would be expected for: CO, PCWP, CVP?

CO, PCWP - decreased
CVP - increased
RVMI presents with hypotension (low CO) elevated jugular venous pressure (increased CVP) but clear lungs (low PCWP)

270

What are the NL PCWP's?

RA - 1-6
RV - 15-30/1-6
Pulmonary a. 15-30/6-12
LA/PCWP/LVEDP - 6-12

271

Chest pain that improves when a patient sits up and leans forward?

Pericarditis
Friction rub

272

Differential clubbing and cyanosis without discrepancy in blood pressure or pulse?

PDA
Lower extremity cyanosis - coarctation
Whole body cyanosis - TOF

273

Common complication of varicose veings?

Skin ulcers (venous stasis)
Thromboembolism

274

During catheterization a branch of the pulmonary a. is occluded by the balloon and the pressure beyond this point corresponds to?

LA

275

A pt is started on chlorthalidone monotherapy. What serum changes will be seen?

Cholesterol
Thiazide diuretics raise serum calcium, uric acid, glucose, cholesterool and triglyceride levels
They lower Na, K, and Mg

276

Following alteplase administration a pt is found comatose with asymmetric pupils and irregular breathing pattern. What happened?

Intracerebral hemorrhage
PCI is a preferred tx due to lower rates of ICH
Alteplase converts plasminogen to plasmin

277

pt has orthostatic hypotension due to blockade of which adrenergic receptor?

Alpha 1 antagonist
Also look for diuretics and autonomic dysfunction