Flashcards in MSK/rheum Deck (173):
Elderly pt with bullae. Histopathology with linear immunofluorescence at the dermal-epidermal junction
Bullous pemphigoid (BP)
Autoimmune attack against hemidesmosomes
Pathophysiology of Guillain-Barre (even if it follows gastroenteritis)
Autoimmune disorder against peripheral nerves and Schwann cells.
Histology = perivenular and endoneurial infiltration with lymphocytes, Macrophages, and plasma cells
Pt unable to raise left arm. Leaves arm hanging at his side with forearm pronated
Erb palsy "waiters tip"
Upper trunk lesion
Affected muscles: abductors (deltoid, supraspinatus), lateral rotators (infraspinatus), and biceps
Pt with dysphagia, claw like hand due to tightened skin, small flat red skin marks, Subq nodules, with significant cold sensitivity in her hands
CREST Syndrome, varient of scleroderma
Calcinosis (skin nodules)
Sclerodactyly (skin thickening)
Telangiectasis (small red marks from dilated vessels
Pt falling on outstretched hand, anterior shoulder dislocation likely
Axillary n. injury, inn deltoid. thus unable to abduct the shoulder
Pt that can't lift arm the first 15 degrees of abduction
Pt may comment that they can lift arm after passing the 15 degree point
infant with lethargy, FTT, fever, increased head circumference, prominent hepatosplenomegaly with profound anemia and leukopenia. Autopsy shows infiltration of the medullary canal space by bony spongiose tissue
failure in bone remodeling due to osteoclast malfunction. medullary canal is replaced by bony matrix (loss of hemopoeitic material) and pts rely on extramedullary hematopoeisis. bone becomes brittle. AD version is more benign
function of isoniazid
prophylactic TB med following +PPD but - CXR. decreases synthesis of mycolic acids.
can cause drug induced SLE (anti histone Ab)
HLA type associated with RA and DM
HLA associated with akylosing spondylitis, post gonococcal arthritis, acute anterior uveitis
HLA associated with Graves dz
HLA associated with kawasaki dz
HLA associated with chronic active hepatitis, sjogren syndrom and T1DM
appearance of gout aspirate
negatively birefringent crystals
ca, phosphate, and alk phos in a pt with paget bone dz
nl ca, phos
high alk phos
which muscle opens the jaw?
lateral pterygoid. inn by V3
in a region of high prevalence what happens to PPV and NPV
pt with fatigue, headache, and blurry vision. can also have fever and jaw pain
temporal (giant cell) arthritis
tx with corticosteroids
40-60yo pt with flaccid blisters that rupture leaving painful raw spots.
autoimmune against desmoglein 3 in the desmosome and macula adherins (attaches epithelial cells together)
can be lethal
tx - corticosteroids
if a kid punches a wall and fractures his hand he probably broke which bone?
metacarpals "boxers fracture"
Mechanism of action of Tacrolimus
post transplant immunosuppresant
Inhibits calcineurin - inhibits T lymphocyte signaline
Test used to dx myasthenia gravis? Potential complication?
Test - ACh receptor Ab
Complication - thymomas (widened mediastinum)
tx - AChEI (pyridostigmine)
In long bone ossification
endochondral ossification = osteoblasts secrete osteoid over a hyaline cartilage model (woven bone)
Pt with fractures with a CBC showing:
High Alk phos
osteitis fibrosa cystica, a complication of untreated hyperPTH (too much reasorption, brown tumor in bone)
Pt with bone dz and:
High Alk Phos
Overactivity of clasts and blasts with sclerotic and lytic lesions on CXR
Desmosomes are joined by
Lab finding in a patient with sausage like fingers and a scaly rash
Underlying genetic cause of achondroplasia
Defect in Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3)
Polymyalgia rheumatica is closely associated with?
Giant cell Arthritis (Temporal Arthritis)
common complications of ankylosing apondylitis
pt that has difficulty standing, walking up stairs, or jumping following a posterior hip location damaged which nerve?
inferior gluteal n.
inn gluteus maximus
pt falling on outstretched hand with pain in snuff box but negative XR likely has?
pain on lateral wrist on dorsiflexion and abduction
bone will undergo avasculaf necrosis and will be hypodensd on depeat XR
if a pt leaves a mid shaft humoral fracture that is displaced go untreated they risk losing function of?
muscles inn by the radial n.: brachioradialis
if a pt has hoarsness following a thyroidectomy which branchial sturctures may have been damaged?
branchial arch 4 - laryngeal n.
branchial arch 6 - recurrent laryngeal n.
what type of tissue arises from branchial:
groove = ectoderm
arch = mesoderm
pouch = endoderm
in erb-duchenne which muscles are affected?
biceps, deltoid, infraspinatus, supraspinatous
kid with leg pain and intermittent fevers. bx shows uniform cells with scant clear cytoplasm and no evidence of normal bony matrix
anaplastic small blue cells
onion skin lesion on XR
pt rolls ankle inward and presents with forward displacement of talus likely injured which ligament?
anterior talofibular ligament
most common lateral ligament injury of the foot because it is the weakest
muscles that elevate the pharynx are derived from which embryological structure?
branchial arch 3 - stylopharyngeus m. (CN IX)
branchial arch 4 - levator veli palatini m. (CN X)
following statin initiation, pt presents with increased BUN, creatanine, and tea colored urine due to?
acute tubular necrosis secondary to myoglobin release from rhabdomyolysis.
young male pt presents with leg pain and a fhx of sister with eye cancer. bx receals malignant bone dz
metaphyseal region of long bone
XR = sunburst pattern
associated with Rb mutation
30-60 yesr old male with cancer in the pelvis, spine, scapula, humerus, tibia, or femur
older male pt with pelvic pain and XR demonstrating blastic lesions
metastatic cancer secondary to prostate cancer
osteolytic lesions = colorectal
direct inguinal hernias pass through x and are bordered by
protrude through hasselbach triangle (which can include through the external inguinal ring)
border = inguinal ligament (inferior), rectus abdominous medially, and inferior epigastric vessels laterally
indirect inguinal hernias pass through x and are bordered by
pass through internal inguinal ring (patent processus vaginalis) and enter scrotum
pt with recent allergies, asthma, uveitis, mild hearing loss, parathesia, diffuse joint pain, weak DTR, and eosinophilia
slashing the medial aspect of the wrist may damage the?
adductor pollicis m.
may have a claw hand
man lifts a box over his head and tears a muscle. has weakness on medial rotation of the arm. pt likely injured his
sle patient that also has a positive VDRL likely has?
this is an autophospholipid ab that reacts to cardiolipin
ana = sensitive to sle
anti-smith and anti-dsdna ab = specific for sle
pt with muscle weakness and heliotrope rash
a pt with gastritis that is requesting a medication to control his pain secondary to osteoarthritis should receive
cox 2 inhibitor Vijds exacerbation of gastritis
what are the steps in smooth muscle contraction
AP activates voltage gated calcium channels
calcium binds calmodulin and activates myosin light chain kinase
mlck phosphorylates myosin allowing it to crossbridge with actin
what nerve and muscle can be injured following a mastectomy causing winging of the scapula?
serratus anterior m.
long thoracic n. (c5, c6, c7)
which drugs are used in chronic gout by competing with uric acid for resorption in the kidney
what drug is used in acute gout by limiting the inflammatory response to urate crystals
in ortner syndrome, the left atrium produces hoarseness by compressing?
the left recurrent layngeal n. a branch of the vagus n.
following a humoral fracture a pt may have difficulty with which motion?
extending the wrist, forearm supination
decreased brachilradials reflex
radial n. damage
in carpal tunnel syndrome
which nerve is compressed ?
which fingers become weak?
sensation can be list where?
median n. compression
loss of sensation over palmar aspect of second digit
in complete thrombosis of the radial a., which vessels can provide collateral flow in the hand?
arteries of the deep and superficial palmar arch
a baseball pitcher is unable to laterally rotate his arm most likely injured his?
in the second phase of pager dz, how does the pts levels of ca, alk phos, and phos change?
stage 2= mixed period of bone formation
nl to slightly elevated ca
alk phos high (400ish)
following treatment for a fungal skin infection a pt has hyperpigmentation. which drug was used?
occurs due to desmolase inhibition causes decreased levels of cortisol and melanocyte stimulating hormone loses its feedback inhibition
an epileptic pt receives treatment and weeks later presents with stevens-johnson syndrome. what is the drug?
alsophenytoin, ethosuximide, carbamazapine
appendicitis symptoms will follow which dermatomal distribution?
T10 controls the belly button (but ten)
a pt undergoing a muscle stimulation test that improves after repeat stimulation
Lambert eaton syndrome
ab against presynaptic ca channels
the cremaster m. is formed from the?
internal oblique m.
in a pt with OA what structural changes might you expect on histology of the joint space?
dislodged pieces of cartilage and subchondral bone
what mutation is found in becker muscular dystrophy
in frame deletion
these guys have the weakness symptoms, but do not have intellectual disabilities
what mutation is found in duchenne muscular dystrophy?
out of frame deletion. truncated protein
inheritance pattern through maternal mitochondria
hx of seizures and ragged muscle fibers on bx
pt presenting with squamous cell lung cancer and hypercalcemia but no focal lytic bone lesions
humoral hypercalcemua of malignancy
caused by over secretion of parathyroid hormone related protein (causes increased resorption of bone but no increase in renal excretion)
mechanism of Clostridium perfingens toxin
toxin = lecithinase, AKA phospholipase C. splits phospholipid molecules
40ish woman with multimonth history of fatigue and widespread MSK pain and decreased attention. soft tissue tenderness at multiple locations bilaterally
chronic pain and fatigue for 3+ months in the absence of other syndromes/causes
tx - incremental aerobic exercise
50+ hear old woman with pain and stiffness in shoulders and hips, weight loss. fever, malaise
which muscle plays the largest role in the valsava maneuver?
rectus abdominus muscles
which circuit provides a negative feedback system to regulate and maintain muscle tension?
golgi tendon organs
can inhibit contraction of a muscle that is exerting too much force (ie weightlifting) to avoid damage
which feedback system monitors muscle length and prevents over stretching?
muscle spindle system
mechanism of action for first line treatment in an acute gout attack?
inhibits tubulin polymerization and disrupts PMN chemotaxis and phago
side effects =nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea
What two factors determine bone mass?
Peak bone mass (largely genetic)
Rate of bone loss
Infant presenting with floppiness (hypotonia) and poor feeding. Stools are every other day and pellet-like. On PE large anterior fontanelle, large tongue, reducible umbilical hernia, low muscle tone.
Caused by throid dysgenesis and iodine deficiency (european family). No symptoms initially since maternal T4 crosses placenta
T4 is involved in mylination in early life and infant is at risk of irreversible intellectual disability
Tx with levothyroxin in first 2 weeks of life to protect brain function
Pt with progressive weakness and difficulty combing his hair. No history of injuries. Bx shows MHC I overexpression on the sarcolemma with CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration
Note: no heliotrope rash (dermatomyositis)
Kid with recurrent skin and mucosal infections, no pus, poor wound healing.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Can have delayed cord seperation at birth
At risk for peripheral leukocytosis with neutrophilia
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is characterized by the absence of?
CD18 - necessary for integrin formation which is essential for adhesion
Pt with a thoracic compression fracture
Initiating allopurinol treatment increases activity of which medication?
Inhibition of XO results in increased conversion of azatioprine to 6-thioguanine which incorporates into DNA and suppresses bone marrow leukocyte production.
A humoral fracture puts which vessel at risk?
Deep brachial a.
Staph aureus has the virulence factor Protein A. What does it do?
Part of the outter PPG layer
Protein A binds the Fc portion of IgG Abs at the complement binding site to prevent complement activation. Causes decreased C3b production and impaired opsonization and phagocytosis
In a patient with giant cell arteritis, what is the most important mediator of this dz?
Tocilizumab is an mAb against IL6 and is effective in treating GCA
On PE of an injured knee, there is widening of the medial joint line when valgum force is applied on the lateral knee with the lower leg fixed. What is injured?
Medial collateral ligament
Attaches medial epicondyle of femus
Typically occurs after a twisting injury
A pt periodically has involuntary deviation of the head to the right with shoulder/neck pain lasting 30-40 minutes. It can be suppressed by placing a hand on the chin. This is?
Dystonia (spasmodic toricollis is cervical dystonia)
Sustained, involuntary muscle contraction
What is blepharospasm?
A focal dystonia involving involuntary forceful closure of the eyelids.
Sudden, brief, severe muscle contraction
Intermittent resistance in extension/flexion of a limb
Involuntary muscle activity that flows from on muscle group to another. Can be fragmented or jerky
Flinging of the limbs on one side of the body
Contralateral injury to the subthalamic nucleus
child fell on outstretched hand and now holds his right arm at this side with elbow extended and forearm pronated. He injured the?
Annular ligamnet displacement
Radial head subluxation (nursemaid elbow)
Generally only occurs in kids under the age of 5
Multinucleated cell in Paget dz
Accumulation of monocytes
2 factors imporant in osteoclast differentiation
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)
Receptor for activated nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L)
What is the physiologic decoy receptor that decreases binding of RANKL to RANK?
This reduces differentiation and survival of osteoclasts
Loss of function mutation = juvenile Paget's dz
Late onset asthma, rhinosinusitis, eosinophilia that potentially has kidney, GI, or CV sysmptoms. Can have carpal tunnel like symptoms
Eosinophilic granulomatososis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)
Mononeuritis multiples = vasculitis affecting epineural vessels (carpal tunnel symptoms)
Lab finding = Ab against PMN myeloperoxidase and perinuclear p-ANCA
Asymptomatic chronic smoker with digital clubbing, thickening of distal phalanges. Fingers have drumstick appearance, flat nail folds, and shiny distal fingers. Spongy nail beds. Causes?
Lung dz - TB, CF, bronchiectasis, pulm HTN etc
Heart dz - Cyanotic congenital heart dz, bacterial endocarditis
First line therapy for a newly diagnosed RA pt?
Inhibits phospholipase A2
Methotrexate, sulfasalazine require weeks before providing symptom relief
Pt with acute knee pain with 3 similar episodes that resolved with OTCH analgesic. History of polycythemia and non compliant with phlebotomy. What is found on needle aspiration?
Needle shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
Myeloproliferative disorders increase urate production
Can osteoarthritis pts have morning stiffness?
Yes but brief
Pt has a puncture injury on right leg. Right foot is dorsiflexed and everted. Cannot stand on toes. Knee and hip muscle strength are intact. Pedal and tibial pulses are +2 and symmetric. XR negative for fracture. Pt will have sensory loss where?
Tibial n. injury at the popliteal fossa, causes foot plantarflexion
In a clavicle fracture, what muscle will displace the medial fragment superiorly?
In a clavicle fracture, which muscle will displace the lateral fragment superiorly?
Pt with fever, flank pain, difficulty walking x 3 days. Pt lies supine with R knee flexed and externally rotated. Resists extension of the leg, thigh and hip
Psoas major abscess
Pt with Black stools, fever, weight loss, muscle pain. Smoker and IVDU. Muscle bx shows transmural inflammation of the mid-sized arteries with areas of homogenous, eosinophilic arterial wall necrosis. Areas of internal lamina disruption
Polyarteritis nodosa secondary to Hep B
Pt with claudication, ulceration, and gangrene. Bx shows inflammatory thrombosis and ischemia involving small and medium arteries of the extrremities
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger dz) secondary to smoking
In acute gout, and medication is given that selectively binds IL1
IL1 is only expressed in sites of inflammation
A pt was given a muscle relaxant prior to intubation. He develops vfib and his potassium climbs to 19. Which agent caused this?
Depolarizing neuromusclular blocking agent that is not broken down by AChesterase
Does cause significant K+ release and arrhythmias
A pt with a laceration is presenting 3 weeks later with high levels of actin-containing fibroblasts and increased metalloproteinase activity
Contracture - when excessive MMP activity causes excessive wound contraction (deformities)
MMPs degrade collagen and ECM proteins. Important in would healing
If giant cell arthritis is suspected, what should be ordered before performing a biopsy?
CRP or ESR
Sensitive but not specific
bx = specific
A kid with a recent illness is now limping and refusing to put weight on his leg. Likely has osteomyolitis. Where is the infection?
Long bone metaphysis - slow flow makes the microbe happy
Adults are less likely to develop hematogenous osteomyelitis due to closure of the epiphysial plate
A pt has difficulty climbing stairs and getting up from a chair, diplopia, dry mouth. Previous SHx of nailing his right tibia. 45 ppd smoking history, Erectile dysfunction. Decreased DTR's, CXR shows irregular round mass in the Right upper lobe
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Proximal muscle weakness, cranial n. involvement, autonomic syx (dry mouth, ED)
Approx half of LEMS pts have an associated malignancy (usually small cell lung cancer)
NOTE: LEMs have hyporeflexia, autonomic syx, and respond to repeat stimulation but MG does not
Scaphoid fx are at risk for which two complications?
Post oophrectomy research animals have overexpression of RANK on the surface of bone cells. What is the effect of this?
Increased bone resorption
RANK-L is not able to interact with rank with RANK when osteoprotegrin is present because it is a decoy receptor. When OPG binds RANK-L it reduces the survival of osteoclasts
Bone turnover is regulated by OPG:RANK-L
High RANK-L - resorption, high osteoclast activity
High OPG - high formation, osteoblasts
A resting membrane potential is -70mV, which ion will flow out of the cell?
Cl is also an anion but it has a low intracellular concentration
Follow a patellar fx, a pt has parathesia and numbness at the dorsum of the right foot and weak dorsiflexion. Where is the nerve compression?
Common peroneal n.
Causes weak dorsiflexion and impaired senstation over the dorsal foot and lateral shin
Aside from elevated auto Ab what other lab abnormalities will SLE pts have?
decreased C3 and C4
Anti mitochondrial ab are found in pts with?
Primary biliary cirrhosis. Presents with pruritus, jaundice, malabsorption
A pt presenting with fatigue, dyspnea, and noncaseating granulomas most likely will have elevated calcium due to?
Activated Macrophages produce 1-a-hydroxylase which activates PTH-independent production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This causes increased intestinal reabsorption of calcium
A pt with RA is likely to see the dz spread to?
The cervical spine (sublaxtion, cord compression)
A pt is presenting with M. leprae (skin discoloration, epistaxis, loss of eyebrows/eyelashes). What should be given to alleviate his symptoms
M. leprae is controlled by Th1. Th1 secretes IFN gamma which activates macrophages. So, supplementing some IFN gamma helps the pt get ahead of the curve.
A neonate presents with FTT, lethargy, increased head circumference, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia. Bone marrow space revels infiltration of the medullary canal with primary bony spongiose tissue. Dx and pathology
Malfunction of osteoclasts - failure of resorption and remodeling of bone. pts compensate with extramedullary hematopoiesis (large head, hepatosplenomegaly)
High alk phos, high calcium, low phos. Multiple fx in a low speed MVA
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Consequence of untreated hyperPTH leading to over active osteoclasts.
Lesions on XR
An older adult with elevated elk phos should be evaluated for?
Suggestive of metastatic dz
lytic lesions = multiple myeloma, thyroid, kidney
Sclerotic lesions = prostate
Mixed lesions = breast and lung
Abx prescribed for acne that increases photosensitivity
The palatoglossus m. is inn by the?
Recurrent laryngeal n.
Compression of this n. = hoarseness (Ortner syndrome)
Cellular structure at the dermal epidermal junction?
Targer in bullous phemgoid
A pt has a non erythematous peraly dome shaped papule that is not pruritic
Spontaneous resolution after a few months
After lifting a heavy object a pt has weakness when medially rotating his arm. Which muscle is injured?
medial rotation and adduction
What is Behcet dz?
Autoimmune vasculitis characterized by oral and genital aphthous uclers
HLA - B51
HLA B27 is associated with
IBD (UC and Chron's)
Pt presents with multiple fx after falling downstairs. On Xray, some of the fx are new and some are old. Labs: low vit D and phos, low-to-nL Ca2+, high alk phos. Dx?
Areas of unmineralized osteoid adjacent to normal trabeculae
Caused by vit D deficiency (with secondary low phos) due to malnourishment
The only rotator cuff muscle that can medially rotate the arm?
An immigrant presents with multiple numb cutaneous and erythematous skin plaques and nodules, especially over the extremities and butt. Recent loss of eyebrows and eyelashes and several episodes of epistaxis. PMH includes childhood asthma and atopy. Which cytokine would improve his condition?
Pt has Mycobacterium leprae. It is controlled by Th1 cells which secrete IFN gamma.
Severe lepromatous dz occurs with CD4+ cells differentiate into Th2 instead of Th1. Giving IFN gamma would activate the macrophages which recruite Th1 to the sites of infection.
IL-10 would be a terrible idea because it would further down regulate the Th1 immune response
After falling off of his horse a pt is unable to raise his left arm and lets it hang by his side pronated. Which nerves and muscles are involved?
Erb palsy, waiter's tip
Upper trunk of brachial plexus(C5-C6)
affects the deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and biceps
Inheritance pattern for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?
X - linked, Xp21 - dystrophin which is a myocyte anchoring protein
By age 5 - delayed walking, clumsy, weak, enlarged calf muscles (pseudohypertrophy)
Elevated creatine kinase
If PIP and DIP are involved think?
If just PIP and metacarpal think RA
What step in muscle excitation is unique to smooth muscle?
Phosphorylation of myosin
AP depolarizes myocyte mumbrane -> opens VGCC -> Ca 2+ binds and activates calmodulin -> activates myosin light-chain kinase -> phosphorylates myosin allowing for cross bridging (NOTE - phosphorylates for contraction, not relaxation)
Steps in contraction of skeletal m.
AP terminates on muscle fibers and release ACh -> binds sarcolemma -> signal moves to T-tubules -> Ca2+ release from sarcoplasm reticulum via ryanodine receptors -> Ca2+ binds troponin C -> conformation change in tropomysin allows actin to interact with myosin (note in Smooth m. actin phosphorylates myosin but does NOT bind) -> crossbridge = contraction
Which muscle pulls the testicles into the abdominal cavity to maintain temperature?
Derived from Internal oblique m.
RA is associated with which HLA?
HLA-DR3 is associated with?
Chronic acitve hepatitis
Spinal stenosis is caused by thickening of which ligament?
Common in lumbar regions and presents with posture dependent lower extremity pain, numbness/parethesia, and weakness.
Most common cause is degenerative arthritis of the spine which results in narrowing of the spinal canal due to intervetebral disc herniation, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, and osteophyte formation affecting the facet joints
What type of inhibitor allows the enzyme to reach the same Vmax but additional substrate is required to reach the max velocity (increases Km).
What would be a good tx for a 40ish female pt with a vertebral fx and fam hx of breast cancer?
Raloxifene - SERM. Estrogen agonist in bone to prevent osteoporosis but antagonist in breast tissue
Tamoxifen would not be a good fit because although it is an antagonist in breast tissue and an agonist on bone (to reduce Osteoperosis) it is also an agonist on the uterus and limits its osteoperosis efficacy
Embryonic origin of the thymus and inferior parathyroids?
Superior parathyroids (4th)
What type of junctions are found between osteocytes?
Long intracanalicular processes that extend through the bone matrix.
Allow for transmission of signals and nutrient exchange
Help regulate bone remodeling by communicating with surface osteoblasts
Ab against snRNPs?
Specific for SLE
Pt with lung cancer plus proximal muscle weakness (difficulty getting out of a chair) and diplopia?
Usually small cell lung cancer
A pt on TB regimen presents with Anti-histone Ab and ANA. Dx?
Drug induced SLE
Linked to drugs that are metabolized by N-acetylation in the liver (procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid)
Slow acetylators are at greater risk of drug induced SLE
A myasthinia pt is started on tx and presents with abd cramping, nausea, sweating diarrhea. Tx?
Tx - MG with a cholinesterase inhibitor (pyridostimine) and has excessive muscarinic GI syx due to excessive cholinergic stimulation
Scopalamine is a selective muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist
Tx for Lyme dz?
Penicillin type abx (ceftriaxone)
Early lyme - rash
Early disseminated - facial palsy, AV node block
Late lyme - asymmetric arthritis, encephalopathy
adult Sickle cell Pt presents with hip and pelvic pain due to?
Pain + restricted movement
Decreased levels of complement C3 and C4
ANA, anti-dsDNA, Anti-Smith
Gottron papules, heliotrope rash, muscle weakness
Gottron papules = red or violaceous, flat-topped papules over joints and bony prominences
perimysial inflammatory infiltrate
Can be part of a paraneoplastic syndrome
Infant with constipation, lethargy, hypotonia, macroglossia, umbilical hernia, large anterior fontanelle?
Start on levothyroxine by 2 weeks
Protected in utero due to maternal T4
Man presents with pain in multiple joints. Blue-black spots on sclerae and darkening of the auricular helices. Dx?
Deficiency in Homogentisic acid dioxygenase deficiency
ar, defect in tyrosine metabolism
Black deposits due to excess homogentisic acid
Anti-Jo 1 is directed against?
Polymyositis - endomysial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and patchy necrosis of muscle fibers
What do all seronegative spondylarthropathies have in common?
Human Leukocyte antigen class I serotype
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition in the synovial fluid is diagnositc of?
Positively birefringent under polarized light (blue)
Which HTN med can increase Ca2+ reabsorption and be protective in osteoperosis?
Recommended for HTN tx in pts at risk of osteoperosis
Loops diurectics shed calcium
In paget's dz of the bone, the initial phase is dominated by which cell type?
Osteoclasts - increased activity
Bone pain + elevated alk phos in an elderly pt = Paget dz of the bone
Bx of mosaic pattern of lamellar bone is diagnostic
Phases of pagets dz of the bone?
Muscle bx that is myoglobin-rich, glycogen poor with many mitochondria is characteristic of?
Postural skeletal muscles (soleus, paraspinal)
Type I slow twitch
ATP from aerobic metabolism
Pt is put on a muscle relaxant and repeat muscle stimulation is decreased but equal initially but 30 min later a similar pattern to what would be seen in myasthenia gravis. What is the drug?
Fast acting depolarizing agent. Short administration (phase I blockade) has equal reduction but prolonged administration causes non depolarizing block (think MG pattern)
12 y/o girl has arthralgias and a + ASO titer. What is she at risk of developing?
Pancarditis (primary cause of morbidity in acute rheumatic fever)