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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (115):
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Syndrome with pulmonary stenosis

Noonan syndrome

1

Syndrome with coarctation of the aorta

Turner's Syndrome

2

Syndrome with truncus arteriosus

DiGeorge Syndrome

3

Snowman on CXR

TAPVR

4

CXR with wall to wall heart and cranial bruit

AVM - vein of Galen

5

Egg on a string on CXR

Transposition of great arteries

6

Large first born male

Transposition of great arteries

7

Most common cyanotic lesion

Tetralogy of Fallot

8

Boot shaped heart on CXR

Tetralogy of Fallot

9

Syndromes with Tetralogy of Fallot

DiGeorge Syndrome and Down Syndrome

10

Syndrome with TAPVR infracardiac

Cat Eye Syndrome

11

Syndrome with Ebstein's anomaly

Maternal lithium
ASD
WPW

12

CXR with wall to wall heart

Ebstein's anomaly

13

Most common form of CHD excluding bicuspid aortic valve

VSD

14

Diastolic rumble

Large VSD

15

Unrepaired VSD can lead to pulmonary HTN and this syndrome

Eisenmenger's Syndrome

16

Heart lesion associated with PDA

Congenital rubella

17

Continuous machinery murmur

PDA

18

Syndrome with AV Canal

Down Syndrome

19

Mid systolic click

Mitral valve prolapse

20

Fixed split S2

ASD

21

Syndrome with ASD

Holt Oram

22

CXR with rib notching or 3 sign

Coarctation of aorta

23

Opening snap

Bicuspid aortic valve

24

Murmur radiates to suprasternal notch or carotids

Bicuspid aortic valve

25

Syndromes with bicuspid aortic valve

Turners Syndrome or Coarctation of Aorta

26

Syndrome with mitral valve prolapse

Marfan's Syndrome

27

ECG with LVH

Aortic stenosis

28

ECG with RVH in neonate, LVH in child

Coarctation of Aorta

29

ECG with RVH and RAD

Tetralogy of Fallot

30

ECG with superior QRS axis, LAD

AV Canal

31

Only cyanotic lesion in neonate with LAD/LVH

Tricuspid atresia

32

Tx of sick infant with SVT

D/C cardioversion 0.5-1 J/kg

33

Drug of choice for SVT

IV Adenosine

34

Delta wave on EKG

Wolff Parkinson White

35

Sawtooth pattern on EKG

Atrial flutter. Rate greater than 250 is common in children

36

Fibrillatory baseline and irregular heart rate

Atrial fibrillation

37

Dilatation and stretch of atrium

Think atrial flutter

38

Tx of atrial flutter

D/C cardioversion or slow AV node conduction with digoxin, beta blocker, or calcium channel blocker. Consider Coumadin if gone on for more than 24 hrs because of static blood flow and risk of dislodging clot

39

Wide QRS tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia

40

Drug of choice for ventricular arrhythmias

Amiodarone

41

Drop attacks

Torsades de Pointes

42

Normal QT interval

Less than 0.45 sec

43

AR, long QT, deafness

Jervell Lange Nielsen

44

AD, long QT, no deafness

Romano Ward

45

Tx for long QT

Tx to prevent torsades: Beta blocker, pacing, or automatic internal cardiac defibrillator

46

Tx of torsades

Magnesium sulfate, pacing, then shock

47

Prolonged PR interval >200 msec

First degree heart block

48

Changing PR intervals with some P waves are not conducted (dropped QRS)

Second degree heart block. Mobitz type 1. Wenckebach

49

Equal PR intervals, some p waves are not conducted

2nd degree heart block, Mobitz type 2

50

No apparent relationship between p waves and QRS

Third degree heart block

51

Anti Ro and Anti La antibodies

Lupus. Causes congenital heart block from trans placental passage of maternal antibodies (IgG) directed against fetal conduction tissue

52

Tx for heart block

Pacemaker

53

Heart defect seen in trisomy 21

AV canal, VSD

54

Heart defect seen in XO

Coarctation of aorta

55

Heart defect seen in trisomy 13 and 18

VSD

56

Heart defect seen in 5p-

VSD

57

Heart defect seen in 22q11-

Truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with VSD, tetralogy of Fallot.

Order FISH test for eval.

58

Heart defect seen in Noonan

Pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

59

Heart defect seen in Marfans

Aortic root dilatation/dissection

60

Heart defect seen in Williams syndrome

Peripheral pulmonic stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis

61

Heart defect seen in Holt Oram Syndrome

ASD, VSD

62

Heart defect seen in Pompe's disease

Cardiomyopathy

63

Heart defect seen in lithium ingestion

Ebstein's anomaly of TV

64

Heart defect seen in ethanol ingestion

ASD, VSD

65

Heart defect seen in anticonvulsant ingestion

PS, AS, TOF

66

Heart defect seen in retinoic acid ingestion

Transposition

67

Heart defect seen in rubella

PDA, PPS

68

Heart defect seen in coxsackie B

Myocarditis

69

Heart defect seen in maternal diabetes

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, TGV

70

Heart defect seen in lupus

Congenital heart block

71

Heart defect seen in PKU

VSD, ASD, complex CHD

72

Shunts reveal themselves at

4 to 6 weeks of age

73

Chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow causes irreversible pulmonary HTN

Eisenmenger Syndrome

74

SOB, cyanosis, hemoptysis

Eisenmenger syndrome

75

Single second heart sound

Pulmonary HTN

76

Bounding pulses

PDA

77

Continuous machinery murmur

PDA

78

Closes PDA

Indomethacin

79

Fixed split S2

ASD

80

Most common type of ASD

Ostium Secundum

81

EKG with left axis deviation

AV canal defect or Tricuspid Atresia

82

If oxygen sat increases with 100% O2

Lung disease

83

If oxygen sat does not change with 100% O2

Cardiac disease

84

Name the 5 cyanotic heart diseases

Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of Great Arteries
Tricuspid Atresia (and/or pulmonary atresia)
Truncus Arteriosus
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

85

Clubbing of fingers and squatting older child

Tetralogy of Fallot

86

Boot shaped heart on CXR

TOF

87

EKG with RVH and RAD

TOF

88

Tx for tet spell

O2, knee chest position, bicarb, morphine, neosynephrine

89

Egg shaped heart on CXR

TGA. Often no murmur

90

Small heart, pulmonary edema, intense cyanosis

Obstructed TAPVR (return goes below the diaphragm)

91

Heart failure in first week of life

Obstruction to left heart flow

92

CHF at 6 to 8 years of age

Myocarditis, rheumatic heart fever

93

Thrill in suprasternal notch region

Aortic stenosis

94

Who gets rheumatic fever following strep pharyngitis

3% of those affected

95

Aschoff body on pathology

Acute rheumatic fever

96

Major Jones criteria

Joints (poly arthritis)
Carditis
Nodules (subcutaneous)
Erythema marginatum
Syndeham chorea

97

Aschoff body on pathology

Acute rheumatic fever

98

Tx of acute rheumatic fever

ASA 80-100 mg/kg +/- prednisone, digoxin

99

Tx of chorea

Haloperidol, benzodiazepine

100

Prevention of acute rheumatic fever

Monthly PCN G IM

101

Lesions high risk for endocarditis

TOF, VSD, AS

102

Two organisms that cause most endocarditis cases

Staph aureus and strep viridans

103

Fever, new murmur, CHF, petechia, Roth spots, Janeway lesions, Soler nodes, splinter hemorrhages

Endocarditis

104

Prosthetic cardiac valve, h/o endocarditis, unrepaired CYANOTIC CHD or completely repaired with prosthetic material if within 6 months of procedure, cardiac transplant recipients

SBE ppx for dental procedures

105

Which procedures get SBE ppx?

Procedures on respiratory tract or infected skin

106

5 days of fever plus 4 other features

Kawasakis

107

Cervical LAD, conjunctival injection, rash, hand and foot erythema, mucosal involvement

Kawasaki

108

Tx of Kawasaki

IVIG
High dose aspirin until fever and ESR decrease and platelets increase then low dose ASA

109

Causes of viral myocarditis

Coxsackie B, echovirus

110

JVD increasing with inspiration

Kussmaul (seen in pericarditis)

111

Chest pain, pericardial friction rub, pulsus paradoxus, kussmaul

Pericarditis

112

HOCM, anomalous left coronary artery, commotio cordis, aortic rupture in Marfans

Causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes

113

Heart defect in maternal diabetes

Septal hypertrophy

114

Bounding pulses

PDA, aortic insufficiency