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Flashcards in Cardiology Cells and Anatomy Deck (65)
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1

What distance must all cells be from a nurturing capillary?

200 micrometers

2

What is the tunica adventitia?

outermost covering, mostly CT, vasa vasorum "vessels of the vessles"
nervi vascularis teh nerve supply of a blood vessel

3

What is the tunica media?

Smooth muscle cells and connectivee tissue

4

What is the the tunica intima?

innermost covering of blood vessels
endothelium with basal lamina,plus connective tissu
endothelial cells connected by tight junctions

5

What is the epicardium of hte heart?

simple squamous mesothelium with connective tissue.
Blood vessels and nerves enter heart here

6

Where do blood vessels and nerves enter the heart at what layer?

enter at the epicardium ~ tunica adventitia

7

What is myocardium

cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts; layer at coronary arteries and veins

8

What layer contains the cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts?

myocardium ~tunica media

9

What is the endocardium?

~tunica intima
simple squamous endothelium/basal lamina + connective tissue
cardiac conduction (Purkinje cells) in the sub-endocardium

10

What is the thickest covering of veins?

tunica adventitia

11

What is the thickest part of the arteries?

tunica media, with prominet elastin and smooth muscle cells

12

What is the main function of large elastic arteries?

during diastole to maintain blood pressure

13

What is an aneurysm?

dangerous outpocketings of the tunica media of the large arteries

14

Medium arteries are characterized by what?

presence of prominent external elastic lamina in tunica adventitia; prominent layer of 40 SMCs in tunica media; tunica intima has a prominent elastic lamina

15

Where do a large number of atehrosclerotic plaques form?

medium arteries

16

What are the plaques of atherosclerotic plaques are formed by what two cell types?

macrophages which migrate to sites of endothelial cell wall damage where they ingest lipid and smooth muscle cells which migrate to tunica intima where they proliferate and take up LDL

17

What are lipid laden macrophages and smooth muscles cells called?

foam cells; form arter-blocking plaques

18

What is phlebitis?

inflammation of a vein usually in the leg, which can be a prelude to thrombosis

19

Valves in medium veins are fromed by what?

folds of tunica intima which project into lumen

20

Small arteries and arterioles have what size lumen?

less than 50 micrometers which allows approximately 6-7 RBCs to passs through

21

How many layers of SMCs do arteries and arterioles have?

arteries have 8 layers of SMCs
arterioles have about 2 layers of SMCs

22

Where do leukocytes enter tissue space?

in post-capillary venules; 50 micrometer lumen enter via diapedesis

23

what are capillaries composed of?

single layer of endothelial cells with its basal lamina

24

What are continuosu capillaries and where are they located?

in heart, skeletal muscle, CNS, lungs
continuous denotes endothelial cells with tight junctions. Have pinocytotic vessels (except in CNS) that transport from BV lumen to adjacent CTs

25

What are pinocytic vessels?

transport stuff from BV lumen to adjacent CT;

26

What is fenestrated capillaries?

type II; located in endocrine organs, GI tract, kidney; ~100 nm diameter windows that represent permanent pinocytic vesicles; large proteins

27

What are sinusoidal capillaries?

located in bone marrow, liver, spleen
discontinouous; basal lamina also discontinous; filter out whole RBS

28

What are the funciton of capillary endothelial cells?

exchange gases and nutrients; gases go directly through membrane; nutrients thru caipllary endotheliums pinocytic vesciles fenestrations and discontinuities

29

What are the vasoactive factors of endothelial cells

vasoactive:endothelin
nitric oxide

30

What are the grwoth facotrs that endothelial cells produce?

fibroblast growth factor
platelet derived growth factors
interleukins