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Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (72)
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1

What equation tells you what arterial pressure is?

cardiac output times total peripheral resistance

2

What is the role of the reticular substance in regulation of circulation?

lateral and superior portions involved in excitation
medial and inferior portions are involved in inhibtion

3

What is the role of the hypothalamus in circulation?

posterior lateral portions cause mainly excitation
anterior portion can cause excitations or inhbition

4

What is the role of the motor cortex on nervous regulation of circulation?

exciation or inhibition

5

what threee areas of the brain are involved in the regulation of the circulation?

reticular substance
hypothalamus
motor cortex

6

What is the vasomotor center?

located bilaterally in the reticular substance of the medulla and lower third of the pons

7

What is the vasoconstrictor area "C-1" anterolateral upper medulla do?

sympathetic discharge

8

What is the role of vasodilator area "A-1" anterolateral lower medulla?

inhibits C-1 area

9

What is the role of sensory area "A-2" bilateral in nucleus tractus solitarii: receive sensory signal from vagus and glossopharyngeal from barorecepotrs. ?

C-1 and A-1 areas

10

What is the cardiac center do?

heart rate and contractility

11

What are innervated by sympathetic system?

sympathetic nerve fibers innervates all vessels except capillaries and precapillary sphincters and some meta arteriorles

12

What is mainly controled by parasympathetic nervous system?

mainly important in control of heart rate via the vagus nerve

13

What is the effect of total spinal anesthesia on blood pressure?

drops it significantly

14

What does alpha 2 sympathetic activation do on a sympathetic never?

ihibit norepinephrine release

15

What does activation of alpha 1 sympathetic receptors sdo?

vasoconstriction

16

What type of system is a baroreceptor pressure control system?

negative feedback control system?

17

What is the equation for G the strength of feedback

G=correction of error signal/error(abnormalilty still remianing)

18

What is hte range of hte effect of carotid sinus barorecptors?

pressures between 60 and 180 mmHg

19

Where is hte baroreceptor reflex most sensitive?

100 mmHg

20

What occurs as the pressure increases in the carotid baroreceptor as far as nerve impules goes?

increase in number of impulees form carotid sinus resulting in inhibtion of vasoconstrictor and activation of vagal center

21

What occurs at the resetting of baroreceptors?

thought to prevent refelx from controling as a control system for changes in pressure that last more than a day

22

What splits angiotensinogen?

renin and splits it to angiotensin I

23

What splits angiotensin I?

ACE to angiotensin II; leading to aldosterone release and sodium retention

24

What splits kininogen?

kallikrein to bradykinin

25

What does bradykinin do?

cause nitric oxcde release; prostaglandin synthesis and vasodilation sodium excretion

26

What splits active bradykinin?

ACE inactivates bradykinin

27

How is hypertension diagnosed?

average of at least 2 readings per visit obtaned at 3 seperate visits each 2 to 4 weeks apart

28

What is the second leading cause of end stage renal disease?

hypertension
with high normal being associated with a 3 times risk of future development of ESRD

29

What are some exogenous causes of hypertension?

oral contraceptives
NSAIDs
Cocaine,ethanol, amphetamines, decongestants
glucocorticoids
cyclopsporin
erythropoietin

30

What are the causes of hypertension for most people

primary genetic ~90%
secondary
Chronic kidney disease 2-4%
primary aldoseronism
pheochromocytoma
cushing