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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (38):
1

Definition of AAA

Permanent dilatation of >3 cm (i.e. 1.5x)

2

Most sensitive and specific imaging for AAA

U/S

3

Indications for open AAA repair

Large (≥5.5 cm) Expanding at ≥1 cm/year Symptomatic

4

Types of aortic dissection

DeBakey: 1 - ascending + arch + descending 2 - ascending 3 - descending Stanford: A - ascending B - descending

5

Radiation of pain in ascending vs. descending aortic dissection

Ascending - anterior Descending - interscapular

6

Management of aortic dissection

Fluids, oxygen, beta blockers, morphine, surgical repair, post-op antihypertensives

7

Indications for surgical repair of aortic dissection

Type A Type B with persistent pain or branch occlusion

8

ECG findings in cardiac tamponade

Low voltage QRS, electrical alternans, PR depression

9

Indications for carotid endarterectomy

Symptomatic ≥70% stenosis Symptomatic 50-70% stenosis (less benefit) Asymptomatic ≥70% stenosis (debated)

10

Bifascicular block

LAD + RBBB

11

Trifascicular block

LAD + RBBB + 1st degree heart block

12

Rate control for AF

Beta blocker (atenolol, metoprolol) Non-dihydropyridine CCB (verapamil, diltiazem) Digoxin - in heart failure

13

Rhythm control for AF (cardioversion and maintenance)

Cardioversion: DC cardioversion Flecainide + beta blocker Amiodarone Maintenance: Flecainide Sotalol Amiodarone

14

Management of SVT (AVNRT/AVRT)

Vagal manoeuvres Adenosine Verapamil Catheter ablation

15

Management of VT/VF

DC defibrillation Amiodarone Lignocaine

16

Management of heart block

1 - none 2 (Mobitz I) - none if asymptomatic, atropine if symptomatic 2 (Mobitz II) - pacemaker 3 - pacemaker

17

ECG findings in SVT

Delta wave, small P wave, short PR interval

18

Management of asystole/PEA

Adrenaline

19

ECG findings in HOCM

ST depression, tall QRS, T wave inversion

20

Management of HOCM

Symptomatic relief - BBs, CCBs Surgical myectomy

21

Morphological changes in MI

12-24 hours - dark mottling

1-3 days - mottling + yellow-tan centre

3-7 days - yellow-tan centre + hyperaemic borders

7-10 days - maximally yellow-tan + depressed red-grey borders

10-14 days - depressed red-grey borders

2-8 weeks - grey-white scar

>2 months - complete scarring

A image thumb
22

 

 

 

 

ECG changes in MI

A image thumb
23

ABI values in PVD

Normal >1.0

Intermittent claudication 0.5-1.0

Critical limb ischaemia <0.5

24

Signs of aortic stenosis

Ejection systolic click

Soft S2

S4 heart sound

Carotid parvus et tardus

Narrow pulse pressure

25

Signs of mitral regurgitation

Pansystolic murmur

S3 heart sound

Displaced apex beat

Soft S1

26

Signs of aortic regurgitation

Early diastolic murmur

Increased pulse pressure

Displaced apex beat

Various eponymous signs (Watson's/Corrigan's, de Musset's, Quincke's, Traube's)

27

Signs of mitral stenosis

Opening snap + mid-diastolic murmur

Loud S1

Tapping apex beat

28

What is this rhythm?

Q image thumb

SA block

29

What is this rhythm?

Q image thumb

Premature ventricular contractions (bigeminy)

30

Management of congenital long QT syndrome

Intracardiac defibrillator

31

Management of torsades de pointes

Magnesium sulfate

32

Management of bradycardias

Atropine

33

Reversible causes of cardiac arrest

6Hs:

  • Hypoxia
  • Hypovolaemia
  • Hypothermia
  • Hydrogen ions (acidosis)
  • Hyper/hypokalaemia
  • Hypo/hyperglycaemia

6Ts:

  • Tablets/toxins
  • Cardiac tamponade
  • Tension pneumothorax
  • Thrombosis (MI)
  • Thromboembolism (PE)
  • Trauma

34

Management of pericarditis

NSAID (+PPI) 

Colchicine

Corticosteroids

35

When does rheumatic fever occur?

2-6 weeks after group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection

36

Jones Criteria for rheumatic fever

Polyarthritis

Carditis

Sydenham's chorea

Erythema nodosum

Subcutaneous nodules

37

Management of rheumatic fever

Analgesia

Antibiotics (benzathine penicillin, phenoxymethlypenicillin)

NSAIDs - for arthritis

Diuretics - for heart failure

Anticonvulsants - for chorea

38

Management of PEA in haemorrhage

Colloid (reversable cause)