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Flashcards in Infectious diseases Deck (12):
1

Clinical features of dengue fever

Fever + skin flushing/rash + headache + myalgia/arthralgia ± haemorrhagic signs (dengue haemorrhagic fever)

2

Clinical features of malaria

Paroxysms (cyclical occurrences) of coldness → shivering → fever and sweating + headache + myalgia/arthralgia ± jaundice (Plasmodium falciparum)

3

Complications of malaria

ABCDES:
-ARDS
-Blackwater fever (RBC haemolysis causing AKI)
-Cerebral malaria
-DIC
-Endocrine – metabolic acidosis, hypoglycaemia
-Shock

4

Pathogens in infective endocarditis

Gram-positive cocci:
-Strep. viridans (in previously damaged valves)
-Staph. aureus (common in IVDU)
-Staph. epidermidis (in prosthetic valves)
-Strep. bovis (in bowel cancer)

Gram-negative HACEK

5

Management of infective endocarditis

Native valve:
-Gentamicin
-Flucloxacillin
-Benzylpenicillin

Prosthetic valve:
-Gentamicin
-Flucloxacillin
-Vancomycin

6

Complications of infective endocarditis

Cardiac:
-Valvular insufficiency
-Heart failure
-Perivalvular abscess
-Myocarditis

Metastatic infection:
-Septic embolisation – stroke, paralysis, blindness, splenic infarction, renal infarction, PE, AMI
-Metastatic abscess
-Mycotic aneurysm

Renal:
-Glomerulonephritis
-AKI

Musculoskeletal:
-Vertebral osteomyelitis
-Septic arthritis

7

Phases of HIV

Acute infection (seroconversion):
-2-4 weeks after infection
-Flu/mono-like features – fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, maculopapular rash, headache

Clinical latency (asymptomatic):
-Can last for 3-20 years
-Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy

AIDS:
-CD4 T cells

8

Investigations for HIV

-HIV ELISA – high sensitivity, but may be false during window period (3-6 weeks after exposure)
-Western blot – confirms +ve ELISA
-HIV DNA PCR – if suspicious despite -ve ELISA during window period

9

HAART

2x NRTI + NNRTI, protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor

10

HIV monitoring

-Clinical status and treatment adherence
-Viral load
-CD4 count
-FBE, UEC, LFT, urinalysis
-BSL, lipids

11

Management of syphilis (painless chancre)

Benzathine penicillin

12

Management of dysuria + purulent genital discharge

IV ceftriaxone + azithromycin (for chlamydia and gonorrhoea coverage, respectively)