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Flashcards in Haematological Deck (22):
1

Tumour lysis syndrome

Hyperkalaemia
Hyperphosphataemia
Hypocalcaemia
Hyperuricaemia/hyperuricosuria

2

Antibodies in cold and warm haemolytic anaemia

Cold: IgM
Warm: IgG

3

Causes of anaemia

Microcytic - TAILS:
-Thalssaemia
-Anaemia of chronic disease
-Iron deficiency
-Lead poisoning
-Sideroblastic anaemia

Normocytic - ABCD:
-Acute blood loss - trauma, GI bleed, surgery, menorrhagia
-Bone marrow failure - aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome
-Anaemia of chronic disease
-Destruction (haemolysis) - sickle cell anaemia, MAHA, G6PD deficiency, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, hereditary spherocytosis

Macrocytic - FAT RBC:
-Foetus (pregnancy)
-Alcohol
-Hypothyroidism
-Reticulocytosis
-B12/folate deficiency
-Cirrhosis

4

Causes of iron deficiency anaemia

-Chronic bleeding - PUD, colorectal cancer, menorrhagia, angiodysplasia
-Malabsorption - coeliac disease, IBD
-Inadequate diet
-Pregnancy

5

Causes of aplastic anaemia

Acquired:
-Idiopathic
-Infection - hepatitis, measles, parvovirus B19
-Drugs - cytotoxic drugs, gold, phenytoin, chloramphenicol
-Pregnancy

Inherited:
-Fanconi's anaemia

6

Definition of febrile neutropenia

Fever >38ºC for 1 hour with absolute neutophil count ≤500 cells/μL

7

Pathological findings in Hodgkin's lymphoma

Reed-Sternberg cells - binucleated with prominent nuclei
Disorganised structure with effacement of lymph node structure

8

Ann Arbor stages

I - in 1 lymph node region
II - in ≥2 lymph node regions on same side of diaphragm
III - nodes on both sides of diaphragm
IV - spread beyond nodes (e.g. liver, lungs, bone marrow)

9

Management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (high grade)

R-CHOP:
-Rituximab
-Cyclosporine
-Hydroxydaunorubicin
-Vincristine
-Prednisolone

10

Clinical features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

TMN Renal Failure:
-Thrombocytopenia - purpura
-MAHA - anaemia, jaundice, schistocytes
-Neurological symptoms - hallucinations, altered mental state, headache, stroke, seizure, coma
-Renal failure
-Fever

11

HUS vs. TTP

HUS:
Less CNS and more renal involvement
Mostly in children

12

Definition of myelodysplastic syndrome

Dysplastic haematopoiesis causing cytopenia and hypercellular bone marrow, with risk of developing AML

13

Types of von Willebrand disease

1 - quantitative decrease; autosomal dominant
2 - qualitative decrease; autosomal dominant
3 - absence of production; autosomal recessive; causes factor VIII deficiency

14

Clinical features of multiple myeloma

CRAB:
-Hypercalcaemia
-Renal failure, recurrent infections
-Anaemia
-Bone lesions

15

Prognostic factors of multiple myeloma

ESR/CRP
β2-microglobulin
Albumin

16

Diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma

M protein on serum/urine electrophoresis
≥10% plasma cells on bone marrow biopsy
End-organ damage

17

Factor V Leiden

Loss of inhibition of factor V by protein C

18

Prothrombin G20210A

Higher levels of prothrombin

19

Antithrombin III deficiency

Loss of inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa, causing heparin resistance and highest risk of VTE (compared to other thrombophilias)

20

Protein C deficiency

Loss of inhibition of factor V and VIII

21

Protein S deficiency

Loss of cofactor activity for protein C, reducing inhibition of factors V and III

22

Management of von Willebrand disease

Type 1 and 2 - desmopressin
Type 3 - vWF-containing factor VIII concentrate