Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (71):
The mediastinum is split into what 4 parts
Anterior, Middle, Posterior
Which bone forms the anterior border of the superior mediastinum?
Which vertebrae form the posterior border of the superior mediastinum?
Which plane separates the superior and inferior mediastinum?
T4/5 (sternal angle)
Where is the thymus found (before puberty)?
Superior mediastinum retrosternally
What is the surface marking of the apex of the heart?
5th left intercostal space in the mid-clavicular line
Which chamber(s) form the right border of the heart?
Which chamber(s) form the inferior border of the heart?
Left and Right Ventricle
Which chamber(s) form the left border of the heart?
Left Ventricle (some atrium)
Which chember(s) form the superior border of the heart?
Left and Right atria
(also great vessels)
The heart sits anterior to which thoracic vertebrae?
The bifurcation of the abdominal aorta occurs at which vertebral level? Becoming what?
The bifurcation of the common iliac artery occurs at which vertebral level? Becoming what?
External and Internal Iliac
What are the 3 main tributaries of the superior vena cava?
Left and Right Brachiocephalic veins
What are the tributaries of the Inferior vena cava?
Left and Right common iliac veins
Into which vein does the hemi-azygos vein drain?
Which veins are drained by the azygos/hemiazygos veins? Which side?
Posterior intercostal veins
Azygos - right
Hemiazygos - left
Anterior intercostal v./a. are drained/supplied by what?
Internal Thoracic Vein/artery
Posterior intercostal arteries arise from what?
Which artery gives origin to the Internal Thoracic Artery?
Which two veins drain the posterior intercostal veins on the left side?
Accessory Hemiazygos vein
The entire body - the lymphatic duct is drained by WHAT?
The thoracic duct lies between what on the posterior thoracic wall?
Azygos vein, thoracic aorta
The thoracic duct drains into what?
Left Subclavian vein
The right lymphatic duct drains into the what?
Medial end of the right subclavian vein
The thoracic duct commences where as what?
At which point does the subclavian artery become the axillary artery?
Lateral border of the 1st rib
Where does the brachial artery bifurcate into brachial and ulnar aa?
The external iliac artery bifurcates into what?
At which region of the lower limb does the popliteal artery branch into the ant/posterior tibial aa?
Proximal end of the tibia
Dorsalis pedis is a continuation of which artery?
The posterior tibial aa enters the sole of the foot where?
Inferior to the medial malleolus
The femoral vein and deep vein of the thigh (deep veins of the leg) drain into what?
External iliac vein
Which veins drain into the popliteal vein?
Short saphenous vein
Is the popliteal vein superficial or deep?
Into which vein does the great saphenous vein drain?
Into which vein does the small saphenous vein drain
Which chamber of the heart is most posterior?
Name the layers of the pericardium
Visceral Serous pericardium
Parietal serous pericardium
Which layer of the heart belongs to the heart and the pericardium simultaneously?
What are the roles of the fibrous pericardium?
Protect the heart
Anchor it to the walls
Which nerves innervate the visceral pericardium?
T1-T4 (cardiac plexus)
Which nerves innervate the parietal/fibrous pericardium?
Which layers of pericardium are sensitive to pain?
Which muscular wall of the atrium is called what?
The cardiac veins drain into the right atrium via the:
The ventricular wall muscles are called what?
What is the function of the moderator band?
Allow coordinated contraction of the papillary muscles
What do the papillary muscles attach to? What is their function?
They attach (via chordae tendinae) to the cusps of the AV valves, contract to prevent atrial regurgitation
The left coronary artery splits into what?
Left anterior descending (interventricular)
The right coronary artery splits into what?
Right marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery
From what part of the aorta do the coronary arteries arise?
Sinuses of Valsalva
In cusps of aortic valve
Which arteries lie in the coronary sulcus?
Right Coronary Artery
Which arteries lie in the interventricular sulcus?
Posterior Interventricular artery
What does the right coronary artery supply?
Right A + V
AV node and bundle
What does the left coronary artery supply?
Both ventricles (including the septum)
The great cardiac vein lies alongside what?
The LAD artery
The middle cardiac vein lies alongside what?
The Posterior descending artery
The small cardiac vein lies alongside what?
The right marginal artery
All cardiac veins but (what?) drain into what?
(Anterior cardiac veins)
The SA node lies near the opening of the ____ in the atrium?
Superior vena cava
The AV node lies where?
Inferior part of the inter-atrial septum
The bundle of His lies where?
Each side of the ventricular septum
Cardiac pain (due to ischaemia) is referred to where? Why is this?
Anterior chest wall, medial left arm
Innervation of the heart returns to T1-T4 spinal nerves
What supplies nutrients to the major arteries?
Describe the tunica media of muscular arteries
Elastin replaced with smooth muscle
Describe the tunica media of elastic arteries
Dense with fenestrated elastin
Few small elastic fibres
What separates the tunica media and tunica intima?
Internal elastic lamina
What type of artery are the aorta and pulmonary trunk?
Which tissue predominates the tunica media of arterioles?