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Systems 1 Anatomy > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (71):
1

The mediastinum is split into what 4 parts

Superior
Anterior, Middle, Posterior

2

Which bone forms the anterior border of the superior mediastinum?

Manubrium

3

Which vertebrae form the posterior border of the superior mediastinum?

T1-T4

4

Which plane separates the superior and inferior mediastinum?

T4/5 (sternal angle)

5

Where is the thymus found (before puberty)?

Superior mediastinum retrosternally

6

What is the surface marking of the apex of the heart?

5th left intercostal space in the mid-clavicular line

7

Which chamber(s) form the right border of the heart?

Right atrium

8

Which chamber(s) form the inferior border of the heart?

Left and Right Ventricle

9

Which chamber(s) form the left border of the heart?

Left Ventricle (some atrium)

10

Which chember(s) form the superior border of the heart?

Left and Right atria
(also great vessels)

11

The heart sits anterior to which thoracic vertebrae?

T5-8

12

The bifurcation of the abdominal aorta occurs at which vertebral level? Becoming what?

L4
Common iliac

13

The bifurcation of the common iliac artery occurs at which vertebral level? Becoming what?

L5
External and Internal Iliac

14

What are the 3 main tributaries of the superior vena cava?

Left and Right Brachiocephalic veins
Azygos vein

15

What are the tributaries of the Inferior vena cava?

Left and Right common iliac veins

16

Into which vein does the hemi-azygos vein drain?

Azygos

17

Which veins are drained by the azygos/hemiazygos veins? Which side?

Posterior intercostal veins
Azygos - right
Hemiazygos - left

18

Anterior intercostal v./a. are drained/supplied by what?

Internal Thoracic Vein/artery

19

Posterior intercostal arteries arise from what?

Descending aorta

20

Which artery gives origin to the Internal Thoracic Artery?

Subclavian artery?

21

Which two veins drain the posterior intercostal veins on the left side?

Hemiazygos vein
Accessory Hemiazygos vein

22

The entire body - the lymphatic duct is drained by WHAT?

Thoracic duct

23

The thoracic duct lies between what on the posterior thoracic wall?

Azygos vein, thoracic aorta

24

The thoracic duct drains into what?

Left Subclavian vein

25

The right lymphatic duct drains into the what?

Medial end of the right subclavian vein

26

The thoracic duct commences where as what?

L1
Cysterna chyli

27

At which point does the subclavian artery become the axillary artery?

Lateral border of the 1st rib

28

Where does the brachial artery bifurcate into brachial and ulnar aa?

Cubital fossa

29

The external iliac artery bifurcates into what?

Profunda femoris
Superficial femoral

30

At which region of the lower limb does the popliteal artery branch into the ant/posterior tibial aa?

Proximal end of the tibia

31

Dorsalis pedis is a continuation of which artery?

Anterior tibial

32

The posterior tibial aa enters the sole of the foot where?

Inferior to the medial malleolus

33

The femoral vein and deep vein of the thigh (deep veins of the leg) drain into what?

External iliac vein

34

Which veins drain into the popliteal vein?

Posterior tibial
Anterior tibial
Fibular
Short saphenous vein

35

Is the popliteal vein superficial or deep?

Deep

36

Into which vein does the great saphenous vein drain?

Femoral vein

37

Into which vein does the small saphenous vein drain

Popliteal vein

38

Which chamber of the heart is most posterior?

Left atrium

39

Name the layers of the pericardium

Visceral Serous pericardium
Parietal serous pericardium
Fibrous pericardium

40

Which layer of the heart belongs to the heart and the pericardium simultaneously?

Epicardium/visceral

41

What are the roles of the fibrous pericardium?

Protect the heart
Prevent over-expansion
Anchor it to the walls

42

Which nerves innervate the visceral pericardium?

T1-T4 (cardiac plexus)
Vagus nerve

43

Which nerves innervate the parietal/fibrous pericardium?

Phrenic nerve

44

Which layers of pericardium are sensitive to pain?

Fibrous/parietal

45

Which muscular wall of the atrium is called what?

Muscular pectinati

46

The cardiac veins drain into the right atrium via the:

Coronary sinus

47

The ventricular wall muscles are called what?

Trabeculae carneae

48

What is the function of the moderator band?

Allow coordinated contraction of the papillary muscles

49

What do the papillary muscles attach to? What is their function?

They attach (via chordae tendinae) to the cusps of the AV valves, contract to prevent atrial regurgitation

50

The left coronary artery splits into what?

Left Circumflex
Left anterior descending (interventricular)

51

The right coronary artery splits into what?

Right marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery

52

From what part of the aorta do the coronary arteries arise?

Sinuses of Valsalva
In cusps of aortic valve

53

Which arteries lie in the coronary sulcus?

Right Coronary Artery

54

Which arteries lie in the interventricular sulcus?

LAD
Posterior Interventricular artery

55

What does the right coronary artery supply?

Right A + V
AV node and bundle
SA node

56

What does the left coronary artery supply?

Both ventricles (including the septum)
Left atrium
SA node

57

The great cardiac vein lies alongside what?

The LAD artery

58

The middle cardiac vein lies alongside what?

The Posterior descending artery

59

The small cardiac vein lies alongside what?

The right marginal artery

60

All cardiac veins but (what?) drain into what?

(Anterior cardiac veins)
Coronary Sinus

61

The SA node lies near the opening of the ____ in the atrium?

Superior vena cava

62

The AV node lies where?

Inferior part of the inter-atrial septum

63

The bundle of His lies where?

Each side of the ventricular septum

64

Cardiac pain (due to ischaemia) is referred to where? Why is this?

Anterior chest wall, medial left arm
Innervation of the heart returns to T1-T4 spinal nerves

65

What supplies nutrients to the major arteries?

Vasa vasorum

66

Describe the tunica media of muscular arteries

Thin
Elastin replaced with smooth muscle

67

Describe the tunica media of elastic arteries

Thick
Dense with fenestrated elastin
Few small elastic fibres

68

What separates the tunica media and tunica intima?

Internal elastic lamina

69

What type of artery are the aorta and pulmonary trunk?

Distributing
Elastic

70

Which tissue predominates the tunica media of arterioles?

Smooth muscle

71

Vein valves are formed from what?

Tunica intima