Cardiovascular Embryology Flashcards Preview

Systems 1 Anatomy > Cardiovascular Embryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Embryology Deck (56):
1

What are the 4 stages of heart development?

Primitive heart tube
Heart looping
AV septation
Outflow tract septation

2

Which germ layer forms the circulatory system?

Lateral plate splanchic mesoderm

3

Where do blood vessels first appear?

Yolk sac
Allantois
Connecting Stalk
Chorion

4

What structures canalise to form the primitive heart tube?

Angioblastic cords

5

The somatic mesoderm forms which structure?

Parietal and fibrous pericardium

6

The splanchic mesoderm forms which structure?

Visceral pericardium

7

What is the structure of the primitive heart tube?

Truncus arteriosus
Bulbus cordis
Ventricle
Atrium
Sinus venosus

8

Sinus venosus forms what? Receives blood from where?

Left and right horns
Receives blood from Yolk sac, placenta, and body of embryo

9

Which veins drain from the yolk sac?

Vitelline veins

10

Which veins drain from the placenta?

Umbilical veins

11

Which veins drain from the body of the embryo?

Common cardinal veins

12

Aortic arches arise from where?

Aortic sac (from truncus arteriosus)

13

Bulbus cordis and ventricle grow faster forming what?

Bulboventricular loop

14

What does the endocardial cushion do?

Separates the right AV opening from the left AV opening

15

Which septum forms first?

Septum primum

16

What is the fate of foramen primum?

Disappears

17

What forms foramen ovale?

Foramen secundum and septum secundum

18

What is the name of the opening between the septum primum and the endocardial cushion?

Ostium primum

19

How is the IV septum completed?

Membranous portion growing from the muscular portion to the endocardial cushion

20

What is the role of Foramen ovale?

Allows blood to pass from right to left (skips non-functional lungs)

21

What two structures fuse to form fossa ovale?

Septum primum and septum secundum

22

What is the most common form of Congenital heart disease?

Ventricular septal defect
(membranous most common)

23

How is bulbus cordis and truncus arteriosus partitioned?

Proliferation of mesenchymal cells forming the aorticopulmonary septum

24

Where it the SA node located?

High in right atrium near opening for SVC

25

Where is the AV node + bundle?

Cells of AV canal and sinus venosus

26

The aortic sac forms what?

Aortic arches

27

Bulbus cordis forms what?

Right ventricle
Parts of outflow tracts

28

The primitive ventricle forms what?

Left ventricle

29

The primitive atrium forms what?

Left and Right atrium

30

Sinus venosus forms what?

SVC
Right atrium

31

What is transposition of the great vessels associated with?

ASD and VSD
Swapping of the aorta and pulmonary artery

32

What is the cause of transposition of the great vessels?

Failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to spiral
Defective migration of neural crest cells

33

Tetralogy of fallot is what?

Pulmonary stenosis
Ventricular septal defect
Dextroposition of aorta
Right ventricular hypertrophy

34

What is vasculogenesis?

New formation of primitive vascular network

35

What is angiogenesis?

Growth of new vessels from pre-existing vessels

36

Aortic arches form from what?

Aortic branches and pharyngeal arch arteries

37

How many aortic arches are there to begin with?

6 pairs

38

What is the fate of aortic arch 1 and 2?

Form maxillary arteries

39

What is the fate of aortic arch 3?

Forms the internal carotid artery

40

What is the fate of aortic arch 4?

Right forms right subclavian artery
Left forms distal aortic arch

41

What is the fate of aortic arch 6?

Right: right pulmonary artery
Left: Ductus arteriosus and left pulmonary artery

42

What is the fate of ductus arteriosus?

Becomes ligamentum arteriosum

43

What is an aberrant subclavian artery?

Regression of aortic arch 4, right subclavian artery forms separately and loops behind the oesophagus and trachea

44

What is a double aortic arch?

Formation of a left and right aortic arch, forming a ring around the trachea and oesophagus - difficulties breathing and swallowing

45

What is patent ductus arteriosus?

Failure of ductus arteriosus to close

46

What is the fate of the vitelline veins?

Celiac artery
Superior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery

47

What is the fate of the umbilical arteries?

Promial: Internal iliac
Distal: forms umbilical ligaments

48

What do the vitelline veins do?

Carry blood from yolk sac to sinus venosus

49

What do the umbilical veins do?

Originate from chorionic villi, carry oxygenated blood from placenta to the embryo

50

What do the cardinal veins do?

Drain body of the embryo

51

What is the fate of the vitelline veins?

Portal veins
Liver sinusoids
Hepatocardiac IVC

52

What is the fate of the umbilical veins

Right: degenerates
Left: forms ligamentum teres
Ductus venosus: ligamentum venosum

53

What is the fate of the cardinal veins?

IVC and SVC

54

What are the common venous system abnormalities?

Double IVC
Absent IVC
Left/double SVC

55

What is the function of ductus venosus?

Shunts left umbilical vein blood directly to the IVC (bypassing the liver)

56

What is maternal rubella infection associated with?

Patent ductus arteriosus