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Systems 1 Anatomy > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (72):
1

Which bones articulate with the manubrium

Clavicle

2

What type of joint occurs between the manubrium and the clavicle?

Primary cartilaginous Synovial saddle

3

At what vertebral level is the xiphoid process?

T9/10

4

At what vertebral level is the sternomanubrial joint?

T4/5

5

Which three parts make up the sternum?

Manubrium, body, Xiphoid process

6

Ribs articulate with which vertebrae?
Which part of the rib with which part of the vertebra?

Vertebrae of the same number and the one above
Head - Demi facet
Tubercule - costal facet

7

Which structures lay in the costal sulcus (groove)?

Intercostal VAN (vein, artery, nerve)

8

Which are the "true" ribs?

1-7

9

Which are the "false" ribs?

8-10

10

Which are the "floating" ribs?

11, 12

11

Vessel lying posterior to the scalene tubercle on the ____ rib?

Subclavian artery
First rib

12

Rib 1 articulate with which vertebra?

Trick question, T1 only

13

Articular facets of ribs articulate with what?

Demi-facets of vertebra of corresponding number and vertebra above

14

Which structures pass through the vertebral foramen

Nerve - spinal nerve
Meninges -

15

The Spinous Process of a thoracic vertebra is:

Long, Slender, down-sloping, non-bifid

16

Which bones form the thoracic inlet?

1st Rib
Manubrium
T1

17

Which bones form the thoracic outlet

Rib 11, 12
Costal cartilages 7-10
Xiphoid process

18

Which ribs form the costal margin?

7-10 (false ribs)

19

Which muscle is primarily used in a newborn's breathing?

Diaphragm

20

Intercostal muscles used for inspiration, muscle fibre orientation?

External Intercostals
Inferoanterior

21

Intercostal muscles used for Expiration, muscle fibre orientation?

Internal and Innermost Intercostals
Inferoposterior

22

Which direction do innermost intercostal muscle fibres appear ?

Vertical

23

The neuromuscular bundle lies between which intercostal muscles?

Intermediate and innermost

24

In which area of the rib lies the neuromuscular bundle?

Costal groove

25

What happens to the external/internal intercostal muscles at their distal end?

Become a thin aponeurosis called intercostal membrane

26

Innermost intercostal muscles only fill first half of the space, the rest is filled up by what (anteriorly and posteriorly)?

Anteriorly - Transversus Thoracis
Posteriorly - Subcostalis

27

What tissue layer lies between the skin and the external intercostal muscles?

Superficial and deep (muscle surrounding) fascia

28

What is a dermatome?

Area of skin supplied by a certain nerve

29

Which dermatomes lie over the sternal angle, nipple area, umbilicus and inguinal region, respectively?

T2
T4
T10
L1

30

The majority of lymph drains into which lymph nodes?

Anterior (pectoral) axillary lymph nodes

31

The (glandular) base of the breast is located between which ribs? Where on the chest?

Ribs 2-6
Lateral border of sternum and mid-axillary line

32

What is the structure of the breast?

16-20 lobes
Surrounded by extensive adipose tissue

33

Which dome of the diaphragm lies higher in expiration? Why?

Right
(Left) heart in way, (right) liver/gall bladder in way

34

Which cardiac structure is firmly attached to the central tendon?

Fibrous pericardium

35

To which vertebra are the left crura attached?

L1, 2

36

To which vertebra are the right crura attached?

L1, 2, 3

37

Which membrane covers the superior surface of the diaphragm

Parietal pleura

38

What is the name of the central tendon to which the diaphragm is attached?

Aponeurosis

39

To which costal cartilages is the diaphragm attached?

Ribs 7-12

40

Opening and Vertebral level of such in the diaphragm

A - Aorta (12)
E - Oesophagus (10)
I - Inferior vena cava (8)

41

Which nerve (and corresponding vertebral levels) innervate the diaphragm?
Afferent or sensory?

Phrenic Nerve
C3, 4, 5
Afferent AND sensory

42

What nerves innervate the periphery of the diaphragm? Afferent or sensory?

Lower intercostal nerves
Afferent

43

Vertebral level of carina of the trachea?

T4

44

Which cartilage forms the laryngeal prominence? What type of cartilage?

Thyroid cartilage (hyaline)

45

Which structure stops solids/liquids entering the layngeal inlet? Which type of cartilage?

Epiglottis (elastic cartilage)

46

First tracheal cartilage inferior to the Thyroid cartilage is called what?

Cricoid cartilage

47

At what vertebral level does the Trachea continue from the larynx?

C6

48

How many hyaline cartilage rings comprise the trachea?

15-20

49

Which muscle completes the tracheal rings?

Trachealis

50

The right bronchi is what COMPARED to the left?

Shorter, wider, more vertical

51

The left bronchus passes inferiorly to which vessels?

Aorta
Left Pulmonary artery

52

What does the right lung possess that the left lung does not?

Middle lobe
Horizontal/transverse fissure
Superior lobar (eparterial) bronchus

53

On which lung surface is the hilum found?

Mediastinal surface

54

Which fascial membrane covers the apex of the lung?

Suprapleural membrane

55

What enables you to identify a bronchus?

Hyaline cartilage plates in wall

56

What are clustered around the veins of the hilum?

Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes

57

Which pleura is sensitive to pain?

Parietal

58

The parietal pleura is split into 4 parts, name them:

Mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal, apical (cervical)

59

What are parietal reflections (and recesses)?

Locations where the parietal pleura changes direction (space of wider separation between pleura at the reflections)

60

Where and at what vertebral levels does the trachea begin and bifurcate?

Cricoid cartilage (larynx)
C6 - T4

61

The lung and parietal pleura sit at which rib-level in:
1. Midclavicular line
2. Midaxillary line
3. Midscapular line

1. 6 and 8
2. 8 and 10
3. 10 and 12

62

What is the histological structure of the lumen of the bronchi?

Mucosa, submucosa, (hyaline) cartilage layer, adventitia

63

What connective tissue fibre predominates the respiratory tract?

Elastin

64

What 2 cell types make up the _______ epithelium of the respiratory tract?

Basal cells, Goblet cells
Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated

65

Which tissues make up the respiratory mucosa?

Respiratory Epithelium
Lamina propria

66

What lies in the submucosa?

Serous glands

67

What is the function of the trachealis muscle?

To constrict the airway during forceful expiration

68

How does hyaline cartilage arrangement differ in the trachea vs bronchi vs bronchioles?

Trachea: C-shaped rings
Bronchus: Plates (discontinuous)
Bronchioles: None

69

What are the last components of the conducting airway?

Terminal Bronchioles

70

Describe the epithelium of the terminal bronchioles

Columnar or cuboidal
No cartilage, glands or goblet cells
Presence of smooth muscle

71

What are the three types of cells in the walls of alveoli?

Type 1 pneumocyte (thin)
Type 2 pneumocyte (surfactant)
Macrophage

72

Which two types of connective fibre predominate in the respiratory lung tissue?

Reticular and Elastic fibers