Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (72):
Which bones articulate with the manubrium
What type of joint occurs between the manubrium and the clavicle?
Primary cartilaginous Synovial saddle
At what vertebral level is the xiphoid process?
At what vertebral level is the sternomanubrial joint?
Which three parts make up the sternum?
Manubrium, body, Xiphoid process
Ribs articulate with which vertebrae?
Which part of the rib with which part of the vertebra?
Vertebrae of the same number and the one above
Head - Demi facet
Tubercule - costal facet
Which structures lay in the costal sulcus (groove)?
Intercostal VAN (vein, artery, nerve)
Which are the "true" ribs?
Which are the "false" ribs?
Which are the "floating" ribs?
Vessel lying posterior to the scalene tubercle on the ____ rib?
Rib 1 articulate with which vertebra?
Trick question, T1 only
Articular facets of ribs articulate with what?
Demi-facets of vertebra of corresponding number and vertebra above
Which structures pass through the vertebral foramen
Nerve - spinal nerve
The Spinous Process of a thoracic vertebra is:
Long, Slender, down-sloping, non-bifid
Which bones form the thoracic inlet?
Which bones form the thoracic outlet
Rib 11, 12
Costal cartilages 7-10
Which ribs form the costal margin?
7-10 (false ribs)
Which muscle is primarily used in a newborn's breathing?
Intercostal muscles used for inspiration, muscle fibre orientation?
Intercostal muscles used for Expiration, muscle fibre orientation?
Internal and Innermost Intercostals
Which direction do innermost intercostal muscle fibres appear ?
The neuromuscular bundle lies between which intercostal muscles?
Intermediate and innermost
In which area of the rib lies the neuromuscular bundle?
What happens to the external/internal intercostal muscles at their distal end?
Become a thin aponeurosis called intercostal membrane
Innermost intercostal muscles only fill first half of the space, the rest is filled up by what (anteriorly and posteriorly)?
Anteriorly - Transversus Thoracis
Posteriorly - Subcostalis
What tissue layer lies between the skin and the external intercostal muscles?
Superficial and deep (muscle surrounding) fascia
What is a dermatome?
Area of skin supplied by a certain nerve
Which dermatomes lie over the sternal angle, nipple area, umbilicus and inguinal region, respectively?
The majority of lymph drains into which lymph nodes?
Anterior (pectoral) axillary lymph nodes
The (glandular) base of the breast is located between which ribs? Where on the chest?
Lateral border of sternum and mid-axillary line
What is the structure of the breast?
Surrounded by extensive adipose tissue
Which dome of the diaphragm lies higher in expiration? Why?
(Left) heart in way, (right) liver/gall bladder in way
Which cardiac structure is firmly attached to the central tendon?
To which vertebra are the left crura attached?
To which vertebra are the right crura attached?
L1, 2, 3
Which membrane covers the superior surface of the diaphragm
What is the name of the central tendon to which the diaphragm is attached?
To which costal cartilages is the diaphragm attached?
Opening and Vertebral level of such in the diaphragm
A - Aorta (12)
E - Oesophagus (10)
I - Inferior vena cava (8)
Which nerve (and corresponding vertebral levels) innervate the diaphragm?
Afferent or sensory?
C3, 4, 5
Afferent AND sensory
What nerves innervate the periphery of the diaphragm? Afferent or sensory?
Lower intercostal nerves
Vertebral level of carina of the trachea?
Which cartilage forms the laryngeal prominence? What type of cartilage?
Thyroid cartilage (hyaline)
Which structure stops solids/liquids entering the layngeal inlet? Which type of cartilage?
Epiglottis (elastic cartilage)
First tracheal cartilage inferior to the Thyroid cartilage is called what?
At what vertebral level does the Trachea continue from the larynx?
How many hyaline cartilage rings comprise the trachea?
Which muscle completes the tracheal rings?
The right bronchi is what COMPARED to the left?
Shorter, wider, more vertical
The left bronchus passes inferiorly to which vessels?
Left Pulmonary artery
What does the right lung possess that the left lung does not?
Superior lobar (eparterial) bronchus
On which lung surface is the hilum found?
Which fascial membrane covers the apex of the lung?
What enables you to identify a bronchus?
Hyaline cartilage plates in wall
What are clustered around the veins of the hilum?
Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
Which pleura is sensitive to pain?
The parietal pleura is split into 4 parts, name them:
Mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal, apical (cervical)
What are parietal reflections (and recesses)?
Locations where the parietal pleura changes direction (space of wider separation between pleura at the reflections)
Where and at what vertebral levels does the trachea begin and bifurcate?
Cricoid cartilage (larynx)
C6 - T4
The lung and parietal pleura sit at which rib-level in:
1. Midclavicular line
2. Midaxillary line
3. Midscapular line
1. 6 and 8
2. 8 and 10
3. 10 and 12
What is the histological structure of the lumen of the bronchi?
Mucosa, submucosa, (hyaline) cartilage layer, adventitia
What connective tissue fibre predominates the respiratory tract?
What 2 cell types make up the _______ epithelium of the respiratory tract?
Basal cells, Goblet cells
Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated
Which tissues make up the respiratory mucosa?
What lies in the submucosa?
What is the function of the trachealis muscle?
To constrict the airway during forceful expiration
How does hyaline cartilage arrangement differ in the trachea vs bronchi vs bronchioles?
Trachea: C-shaped rings
Bronchus: Plates (discontinuous)
What are the last components of the conducting airway?
Describe the epithelium of the terminal bronchioles
Columnar or cuboidal
No cartilage, glands or goblet cells
Presence of smooth muscle
What are the three types of cells in the walls of alveoli?
Type 1 pneumocyte (thin)
Type 2 pneumocyte (surfactant)