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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (54)
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1

Isolated Systolic HTN

Elevated systolic with normal diastolic. Good predictor of CV events in the elderly. Vascular compromise.

2

Stage 1 HTN range

140-159 OR 90-99 mm Hg

3

HTN treatment goals for DM, kidney disease, and increased risk for stroke.

130/80 mm Hg

4

Lab tests for hypertension

urinalysis, blood glucose, hematocrit and lipid panel, serum potassium, creatinine, and calcium

5

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

Hypertension
• Obesity
(body mass index >30 kg/m2)
• Dyslipidemia
• Diabetes mellitus
• Cigarette smoking
• Physical inactivity
• Microalbuminuria, estimated
glomerular filtration rate 55 for men, >65 for women)
• Family history of premature CVD

6

Identifiable causes of HTN

Sleep apnea
• Drug induced/related
• Chronic kidney disease
• Primary aldosteronism
• Renovascular disease
• Cushing’s syndrome or steroid
therapy
• Pheochromocytoma
• Coarctation of aorta
• Thyroid/parathyroid disease

7

Stage 1 Hypertension - treatment without compelling indications

Thiazide-type diuretics for most. May consider ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB, or combination

8

Stage 2 Hypertension - treatment without compelling indications

2-drug combination for most (usually thiazidetype diuretic and ACEI, or ARB, or BB, or CCB).

9

Compelling indication - Heart failure

THIAZ, BB, ACEI, ARB, ALDO ANT

10

Compelling indication - Post myocardial infarction

BB, ACEI, ALDO ANT

11

Compelling indication - High CVD risk

THIAZ, BB, ACEI, CCB

12

Compelling indication - Diabetes

THIAZ, BB, ACEI, ARB, CCB

13

Compelling indication - Chronic kidney disease

ACEI, ARB

14

Compelling indication - Recurrent stroke prevention

THIAZ, ACEI

15

Lifestyle modification for HTN

Components of lifestyle modifications include weight reduction, DASH eating plan, dietary sodium reduction, aerobic physical activity, and moderation of alcohol consumption.

16

Weight reduction drop in SBP

5-20

17

DASH diet drop in SBP

8-14

18

Sodium reduction drop in SBP

2-8

19

Exercise drop in SBP

4-9

20

Alcohol consumption limits (<2 drinks per day) drop in SBP

2-4

21

thiazide diuretics

suffix "ide" first line unless compelling indication not to use.

22

ACE inhibitor

suffix "pril" Use in high renin states and DM

23

ARB

suffix "sartan" Use in high renin states, DM, alternative to an ACE

24

Beta blockers

suffix "lol" Not for use in uncomplicated HTN but a god add on medication

25

Calcium channel blockers

suffix "dipine" Use for isolated systolic HTN

26

How long do you trial lifestyle modifications

3 months

27

Common side effect of HCTZ

erectile dysfunction

28

What medication should not be used with a calcium channel blocker?

HCTZ - no synergism

29

What medication should not be used in pregnancy?

ACE/ARB

30

General population - total cholesterol goal

<200