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1st year Anatomy > Cardiovascular anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular anatomy Deck (37)
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1

What is meant by heamopericardium?

When the pericardial cavity fills with blood - creates cardiac tamponade, when pressure around the heart prevents contraction

2

What is the transverse pericardial sinus?

The space behind the pulmonary trunk and aorta, and in front of the SVC

3

Which coronary artery sits in the coronary groove (atrioventricular groove) and which sits in the anterior inter-ventricular groove?

RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
- Coronary groove
LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
- Anterior inter-ventricular groove

4

What are auricles?

Extensions of the atria

5

Where does the coronary sinus drain into? Where does its deoxygenated blood drain from?

Right atrium
The cardiac veins

6

Which part of the aorta do the coronary arteries arise from?

The ascending aorta

7

Describe the branches of the coronary arteries

The right coronary artery branches into the right marginal artery
The left coronary artery branches into the left circumflex, left marginal, lateral branch and the left anterior descending

8

Describe the locations of the heart valves

Tricuspid (RA - RV)
Pulmonary (RV - pulmonary trunk)
Mitral (LA- LV)
Aortic (LV - aorta)

9

Which heart valves have 3 cusps and which only has 2 cusps?

3 cusps - Aortic, Pulmonary, Tricuspid
2 cusps - Mitral

10

Which structures attached to the heart valves aid them in opening and closing?

Tendinous cords linked to papillary muscles

11

Veins don't usually pulsate, so why can a pulsating JVP be seen?

There are no valves between the RA and the internal jugular vein and so there is transmitted pulsation from the heart to the vein

12

What is the limit for a normal JVP?

JVP should be no more than 3cm above the level of the sternal angle

13

Between which two parts of which muscle is the internal jugular vein found?

The clavicular head of the sternomastoid muscle
The sternal head of the sternomastoid muscle

14

What are the 3 branches of the arch of the aorta?

The brachiocephalic trunk
Left subclavian artery
Left common carotid artery

15

Where do pre-synaptic sympathetic fibres from the brain exit the spinal cord? which neurotransmitter is involved in the synapse between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurones?

T1- L2
acetylcholine

16

Post-synpatic sympathetic fibres synapse at organs, which neurotransmitter is involved here?

Noradrenaline

17

The cardiac plexus is an intertwining of which 3 nerve fibre types?

Sympathetics
Parasympathetics
Visceral Afferents

18

With which 4 cranial nerves do parasympathetic signals travel with? which over group of nerves are they also carried by?

3,7,9 and 10
sacral spinal nerves

= CRANIOSACRAL OUTFLOW

19

What is the difference between somatic and visceral pain?

Somatic pain comes from body wall structures, it is sharp and well-localised
Visceral pain comes from organs, it is dull and poorly-localised

20

Which side of the mediastinum is the venous side and which is the arterial side?

Right side = venous side
Left side = arterial side

21

What is the ligamentum arteriosum?

The remnant of the ductus arteriosus which connected the pulmonary trunk to the arch of the aorta

22

What is the difference between radiating and referred pain?

Radiating pain is felt both at the actual site and at the radiating site
Referred pain is only felt at a site distant from the actual site

23

With coronary atherosclerosis, which vessel is the most common site of blockage? Which other two vessels are also common sites?

The left anterior descending branch
Right coronary artery
Circumflex branch

24

Which 3 vessels are most commonly used for coronary artery bypass grafting?

The great saphenous vein
Radial artery
Internal thoracic artery

25

What two points is the transverse thoracic plane between?

The sternal angle
T4/T5

26

What is the cisterns chyli?

The swollen part of the thoracic duct in the abdomen

27

The recurrent laryngeal nerves are branches of the vagus nerve, what structures do they supply?

Pharynx
Larynx

28

Describe the pericardiocentesis procedure

A needle is inserted via the infrasternal angle/ the 5th intercostal space next to the sternum

29

What structures does the internal thoracic artery (aka mammary) supply?

Intercostal spaces

30

What is the crista terminalis?

The vertical ridge between the auricle and the smooth part of the atrium