Flashcards in Cardiovascular anatomy Deck (37)
What is meant by heamopericardium?
When the pericardial cavity fills with blood - creates cardiac tamponade, when pressure around the heart prevents contraction
What is the transverse pericardial sinus?
The space behind the pulmonary trunk and aorta, and in front of the SVC
Which coronary artery sits in the coronary groove (atrioventricular groove) and which sits in the anterior inter-ventricular groove?
RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
- Coronary groove
LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
- Anterior inter-ventricular groove
What are auricles?
Extensions of the atria
Where does the coronary sinus drain into? Where does its deoxygenated blood drain from?
The cardiac veins
Which part of the aorta do the coronary arteries arise from?
The ascending aorta
Describe the branches of the coronary arteries
The right coronary artery branches into the right marginal artery
The left coronary artery branches into the left circumflex, left marginal, lateral branch and the left anterior descending
Describe the locations of the heart valves
Tricuspid (RA - RV)
Pulmonary (RV - pulmonary trunk)
Mitral (LA- LV)
Aortic (LV - aorta)
Which heart valves have 3 cusps and which only has 2 cusps?
3 cusps - Aortic, Pulmonary, Tricuspid
2 cusps - Mitral
Which structures attached to the heart valves aid them in opening and closing?
Tendinous cords linked to papillary muscles
Veins don't usually pulsate, so why can a pulsating JVP be seen?
There are no valves between the RA and the internal jugular vein and so there is transmitted pulsation from the heart to the vein
What is the limit for a normal JVP?
JVP should be no more than 3cm above the level of the sternal angle
Between which two parts of which muscle is the internal jugular vein found?
The clavicular head of the sternomastoid muscle
The sternal head of the sternomastoid muscle
What are the 3 branches of the arch of the aorta?
The brachiocephalic trunk
Left subclavian artery
Left common carotid artery
Where do pre-synaptic sympathetic fibres from the brain exit the spinal cord? which neurotransmitter is involved in the synapse between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurones?
Post-synpatic sympathetic fibres synapse at organs, which neurotransmitter is involved here?
The cardiac plexus is an intertwining of which 3 nerve fibre types?
With which 4 cranial nerves do parasympathetic signals travel with? which over group of nerves are they also carried by?
3,7,9 and 10
sacral spinal nerves
= CRANIOSACRAL OUTFLOW
What is the difference between somatic and visceral pain?
Somatic pain comes from body wall structures, it is sharp and well-localised
Visceral pain comes from organs, it is dull and poorly-localised
Which side of the mediastinum is the venous side and which is the arterial side?
Right side = venous side
Left side = arterial side
What is the ligamentum arteriosum?
The remnant of the ductus arteriosus which connected the pulmonary trunk to the arch of the aorta
What is the difference between radiating and referred pain?
Radiating pain is felt both at the actual site and at the radiating site
Referred pain is only felt at a site distant from the actual site
With coronary atherosclerosis, which vessel is the most common site of blockage? Which other two vessels are also common sites?
The left anterior descending branch
Right coronary artery
Which 3 vessels are most commonly used for coronary artery bypass grafting?
The great saphenous vein
Internal thoracic artery
What two points is the transverse thoracic plane between?
The sternal angle
What is the cisterns chyli?
The swollen part of the thoracic duct in the abdomen
The recurrent laryngeal nerves are branches of the vagus nerve, what structures do they supply?
Describe the pericardiocentesis procedure
A needle is inserted via the infrasternal angle/ the 5th intercostal space next to the sternum
What structures does the internal thoracic artery (aka mammary) supply?