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1st year Anatomy > Gastrointestinal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Deck (114)
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1

What is the course of the trigeminal nerve (CNV)

Comes off the CNS at the pons
Passes through the foramen ovale of the sphenoid bone

2

How many divisions of the trigeminal nerve are there?

3

3

What is the course of the facial nerve (CNVII)?

Comes off the CNS between the pons and the medulla
Leaves through the internal acoustic meatus of the temporal bone
Emerges externally through the stylomastoid foramen

4

What are some of the innervations of the facial nerve?

Supplies muscles of facial expression
It branches in to the chorda tympani which innervates the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue and is involved in taste and sensation
It supplies the sublingual salivary glands with parasympathetic axons.

5

What branch of CNV supplies what part of the oral cavity?

CNV2 supplies the superior oral cavity
CNV3 supplies the inferior oral cavity

6

What is the course of CNV2?
(maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve)

Comes off the CNS at the pons
Exits through the foramen rotundum in the sphenoid bone

7

What is the course of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CNIX) ?

It leaves the CNS at the medulla
Exits through the jugular foramen which is between the temporal and occipital bones

8

What is the course of the hypoglossal nerve (CNXII) ?

Connected to the CNS via many rootlets that attach to the medulla oblongata
Leaves through the hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone

9

What are the 4 pairs of muscles of mastication?

Temporalis
Masseter
Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygoid

10

Which three cranial nerves supply sensation to the tongue?

CNVII (facial nerve)
CNV3 (trigeminal)
CNIX (glossopharyngeal)

11

What effect do autonomic nerves have on peristalsis?

Parasympathetics speed up peristalsis
Sympathetics slow down peristalsis

12

At what level does the laryngopharynx become the oesophagus?

C6

13

What is the name of the anatomical upper sphincter of the oesophagus?

Cricopharyngeus

14

The lower oesophageal sphincter is physiological not anatomical. What two things produce its physiological effect?

Contraction of the diaphragm
Higher intra-abdominal pressure than intra-gastric pressure

15

What 3 regions does the stomach lie in?

Left hypochondrium, epigastric, umbilical

16

On the lesser curvature side of the stomach, what is the indent called?

Incisura Angularis

17

Talk logically through the nine regions of the abdomen

Right hypochondrium, epigastric, left hypochondrium
Right lumbar, umbilical, Left lumbar,
Right inguinal, pubic, left inguinal

18

What are the two ligaments of the liver?

Falciform ligament
Round ligament

19

Which liver ligament attaches the liver to the body wall?

The falciform ligament

20

What are the three parts of the small intestine?

Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum

21

What are the parts of the large intestine?

Appendix
caecum
Ascending colon
Hepatic flexure
Transverse colon
Splenic flexure
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectum
Anal canal
Anus

22

Explain the musculature of the anterolateral abdominal wall

The rectus abdominus are the 'ab muscles' at the front
There are three layers of muscles at the side;
The external oblique
The internal oblique
The transverses abdominus

23

If blood/pus or faeces enter the peritoneal cavity, what will this cause?

Peritonitis

24

What is mesentery?

A double layer of peritoneum that comes together and wraps behind the organ

25

Name 3 retroperitoneal organs and 3 intraperitoneal organs

RETROPERITONEAL;
Kidneys
Adrenal Glands
Pancreas
INTRAPERITONEAL;
Stomach
Spleen
Liver

26

What is omentum?

A double layer of peritoneum that passes from the stomach

27

How many layers does the greater momentum have and what are its attachments?

4 Layers
It hangs over many structures
Attached to the greater curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon

28

How many layers does the lesser momentum have and what are its attachments?

2 (double-layered)
Attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the liver. It has a right 'free' edge.

29

Peritoneum forms pouches at its inferior aspect. What are these pouches called in males and females?

There is 1 pouch in males - called the 'rectovesical pouch'
There are 2 pouches in females - called the 'vesicle-uterine pouch' and 'recto-uterine pouch (a.k.a pouch of douglas) in females.

30

What is ascites, what is its most common cause and how is it managed?

Ascites is a collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
it is most commonly caused by liver disease.
It is managed by paracentesis in which a needle is used to drain the fluid.