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Flashcards in Principles anatomy Deck (92)
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1

What does the central medullary cavity of a bone contain?

Bone marrow

2

Where would you find periosteum, where is it not present, and what is its function?

-Coats the outer surfaces of bones
-Absent where ligaments and cartilage are attached
-Contains vasculature and nerve supply

3

What does the epiphyseal growth plate do?

Lays out cartilage which gradually transforms to bone

4

What is meant by endochondral ossification?

The process by which cartilage turns to bone during development

5

What is meant by a 'callus' in terms of bone healing?

A callus is the mass of tissue that forms between bone ends when a fracture is healing

6

What is the axial skeleton made up of and what is the appendicular skeleton made up of?

AXIAL
- skull
-cervical vertebrae
-hyoid bone
- trunk - ribs, sternum, spine
APPENDICULAR
-pectoral girdle (clavicle, scapula)
-upper limbs
-pelvic girdle
-lower limbs

7

Which 4 bones are considered as the viscerocranium?

Nasal bones
zygomatic bones
maxilla
mandible

8

Describe the spine in terms of how many vertebrae there are, and what they are called

33 vertebrae in total
7 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
4 Coccyx

9

Which cervical vertebrae is unique in that it has no body and no spinous process?

C1

10

Which cervical vertebrae is unique in that it has an odontoid process?

C2

11

Describe the classification of the 12 ribs

1-7 = true ribs
8-10 = false ribs
11-12 = floating ribs

12

What are sutures and syndesmoses?

- Sutures are fibrous joints between the bones of the skull
- Syndesmoses are fibrous joints which unite bones with fibrous sheet

13

What are the characteristics of fibrous joints?

Limited mobility
Stable
E.g sutures and syndesmoses

14

Describe cartilaginous joints

Limited mobility
relatively stable
PRIMARY
- joined by hyaline cartilage
e.g long bone epiphyseal growth plate
SECONDARY
- jones by fibrocartilage
e.g intervertebral discs

15

Describe the composition of an intervertebral disc

Outer fibrous ring = 'annul fibrosus'
Inner soft part = 'nucleus pulpous'

16

Which is the most mobile type of joint?

SYNOVIAL

17

What is the least mobile type of joint?

FIBROUS

18

Give an example of a primary and a secondary cartilaginous joint

Primary cartilaginous joint - Epiphyseal growth plate
Secondary cartilaginous going- Intervertebral discs

19

Name a plane synovial joint and describe its movement

Acromioclavicular joint - sliding movements

20

Name a hinge synovial joint

Elbow joint

21

Name a biaxial joint

Carpometacarpal joint

22

Name a ball and socket joint

Hip joint

23

Name a pivot joint

Atlanta- axial joint ( in the neck)

24

What is the difference between dislocation and subluxation?

- Subluxation is a partial dislocation in which there is reduced area of contact between two articular surfaces
- Dislocation involves complete loss of contact between two articular surfaces

25

Name a circular skeletal muscle

Orbicularis Oris

26

Name a flusiform skeletal muscle

Biceps Brachii

27

Name a flat skeletal muscle with aponeurosis

External oblique

28

Name a pennate skeletal muscle

Deltoid

29

Name a quadrate skeletal muscle

Rectus abdominus

30

What is a tendon and what is an aponeurosis?

A tendon attaches muscle to bone
An aponeurosis attaches tendon to soft tissue