Flashcards in Principles anatomy Deck (92)
What does the central medullary cavity of a bone contain?
Where would you find periosteum, where is it not present, and what is its function?
-Coats the outer surfaces of bones
-Absent where ligaments and cartilage are attached
-Contains vasculature and nerve supply
What does the epiphyseal growth plate do?
Lays out cartilage which gradually transforms to bone
What is meant by endochondral ossification?
The process by which cartilage turns to bone during development
What is meant by a 'callus' in terms of bone healing?
A callus is the mass of tissue that forms between bone ends when a fracture is healing
What is the axial skeleton made up of and what is the appendicular skeleton made up of?
- trunk - ribs, sternum, spine
-pectoral girdle (clavicle, scapula)
Which 4 bones are considered as the viscerocranium?
Describe the spine in terms of how many vertebrae there are, and what they are called
33 vertebrae in total
Which cervical vertebrae is unique in that it has no body and no spinous process?
Which cervical vertebrae is unique in that it has an odontoid process?
Describe the classification of the 12 ribs
1-7 = true ribs
8-10 = false ribs
11-12 = floating ribs
What are sutures and syndesmoses?
- Sutures are fibrous joints between the bones of the skull
- Syndesmoses are fibrous joints which unite bones with fibrous sheet
What are the characteristics of fibrous joints?
E.g sutures and syndesmoses
Describe cartilaginous joints
- joined by hyaline cartilage
e.g long bone epiphyseal growth plate
- jones by fibrocartilage
e.g intervertebral discs
Describe the composition of an intervertebral disc
Outer fibrous ring = 'annul fibrosus'
Inner soft part = 'nucleus pulpous'
Which is the most mobile type of joint?
What is the least mobile type of joint?
Give an example of a primary and a secondary cartilaginous joint
Primary cartilaginous joint - Epiphyseal growth plate
Secondary cartilaginous going- Intervertebral discs
Name a plane synovial joint and describe its movement
Acromioclavicular joint - sliding movements
Name a hinge synovial joint
Name a biaxial joint
Name a ball and socket joint
Name a pivot joint
Atlanta- axial joint ( in the neck)
What is the difference between dislocation and subluxation?
- Subluxation is a partial dislocation in which there is reduced area of contact between two articular surfaces
- Dislocation involves complete loss of contact between two articular surfaces
Name a circular skeletal muscle
Name a flusiform skeletal muscle
Name a flat skeletal muscle with aponeurosis
Name a pennate skeletal muscle
Name a quadrate skeletal muscle