Cardiovascular Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Management Deck (19):
1

An electrocardiogram records an electrocardiograph. True/False?

False

2

Charge differences during the cardiac cycle creates a dipole which generates an electrical field that is measurable with electrodes. The measured potential difference is greatest when the lead axis is perpendicular to the direction of the dipole. True/False?

False
Potential difference is greatest when lead axis is parallel to direction of the dipole

3

Describe the standard limb leads, i.e. where they are aligned

Lead I: RA-LA
Lead II: RA-LL
Lead III: LA-LL

4

The positive electrode is the recording electrode. What does this mean?

The wave of depolarisation moves towards this electrode

5

What does the P wave represent? How long is it?

Atrial depolarisation
0.08-0.10s

6

What does the QRS complex represent? How long is it?

Ventricular depolarisation
Less than 0.10s

7

What does the T wave represent?

Ventricular repolarisation

8

What does the PR interval represent? How long is it?

AV nodal delay
0.12-0.20s

9

What does the ST segment represent?

(maintained) Ventricular systole

10

What does the TP interval represent?

Diastole

11

What are the 3 augmented limb leads?

aVR, aVL and aVF

12

Why is the aVR recording inverted on an ECG?

The wave of depolarisation is moving away from this electrode

13

One large box (5 small squares) on an ECG represents how many seconds?

0.2 seconds

14

How do we calculate heart rate on a regular ECG?

300/no. of large boxes between R-R peaks

15

How do we calculate heart rate on an irregular ECG?

300/no. of QRS peaks in 6 large boxes

16

What are the main risk factors for CVD?

Hypertension
Smoking
Diabetes
Dyslipidaemia/obesity
Lack of physical activity

17

Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with greater incidence of CVD events than hypercholesterolemia. True/False?

False

18

HDL cholesterol tends to be low when triglycerides are high. True/False?

True

19

Essential hypertension has a clear underlying cause. True/False?

False
Cause largely unknown; secondary hypertension usually has a cause