What is a cardiac murmur?
Noise due to turbulent blood flow within the heart
Diastolic murmurs are in time with the carotid pulse. True/False?
Systolic murmurs are in time with the carotid pulse
What are the 5 steps for describing murmurs?
Systole or diastole? Which type of murmur? Where is it best heard? Does it radiate? What is the grade?
Where do aortic murmurs tend (but not always) radiate to?
Where do mitral murmurs tend (but not always) radiate to?
Where do tricuspid murmurs tend to radiate?
What is a thrill?
What is a heave?
Palpable sensation due to ventricular stress/hypertrophy
Which murmurs, left or right sided, are louder on inspiration?
Name the main non-invasive investigation for diagnosing cardiac murmurs
Name an invasive investigation for diagnosing cardiac murmurs
What are the main causes of aortic stenosis?
Congenital bicuspid valve
Degeneration/calcification with age
Can aortic stenosis patients be asymptomatic?
What are some symptoms of aortic stenosis?
[less cardiac output]
What are some signs of aortic stenosis?
Radiates to carotid
Name some treatment for aortic stenosis
TAVI (valve implantation)
What are the main causes of mitral regurgitation?
Myxoma in younger people
What are some signs of mitral regurgitation?
Radiates to axilla
Name some treatment for mitral regurgitation
What is the main cause of mitral stenosis?
What are some symptoms of mitral stenosis?
What are some signs of mitral stenosis?
Name some treatment for mitral stenosis
Diuretics, B blocker, digoxin
What are the main causes of aortic regurgitation?
Connective tissue disorders (SLE, rheumatoid)
What are some signs of aortic regurgitation?