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Flashcards in Valve Disease Deck (25):
1

What is a cardiac murmur?

Noise due to turbulent blood flow within the heart

2

Diastolic murmurs are in time with the carotid pulse. True/False?

False
Systolic murmurs are in time with the carotid pulse

3

What are the 5 steps for describing murmurs?

Systole or diastole?
Which type of murmur?
Where is it best heard?
Does it radiate?
What is the grade?

4

Where do aortic murmurs tend (but not always) radiate to?

Carotids

5

Where do mitral murmurs tend (but not always) radiate to?

Axilla

6

Where do tricuspid murmurs tend to radiate?

Nowhere!

7

What is a thrill?

Palpable murmur

8

What is a heave?

Palpable sensation due to ventricular stress/hypertrophy

9

Which murmurs, left or right sided, are louder on inspiration?

Right sided

10

Name the main non-invasive investigation for diagnosing cardiac murmurs

Echocardiography

11

Name an invasive investigation for diagnosing cardiac murmurs

Cardiac catheterisation

12

What are the main causes of aortic stenosis?

Congenital bicuspid valve
Degeneration/calcification with age
Rheumatic disease

13

Can aortic stenosis patients be asymptomatic?

Yes

14

What are some symptoms of aortic stenosis?

Breathlessness
Chest pain
Dizziness
[less cardiac output]

15

What are some signs of aortic stenosis?

Slow-rising pulse
Heaving apex
Ejection systolic
Radiates to carotid

16

Name some treatment for aortic stenosis

Valve replacement
Balloon valvotomy
TAVI (valve implantation)

17

What are the main causes of mitral regurgitation?

Rheumatic disease
Myxoma in younger people
Endocarditis
Chorda rupture

18

What are some signs of mitral regurgitation?

Displaced apex
Pansystolic
Radiates to axilla

19

Name some treatment for mitral regurgitation

Valve replacement
Diuretics, ACEi

20

What is the main cause of mitral stenosis?

Rheumatic disease

21

What are some symptoms of mitral stenosis?

Breathlessness
Palpitations
Fatigue

22

What are some signs of mitral stenosis?

Malar flush
Tapping apex
Mid-diastolic rumbling

23

Name some treatment for mitral stenosis

Valve replacement
Balloon valvuloplasty
Diuretics, B blocker, digoxin

24

What are the main causes of aortic regurgitation?

Endocarditis
Connective tissue disorders (SLE, rheumatoid)
Marfan's syndrome

25

What are some signs of aortic regurgitation?

Collapsing pulse
Displaced apex
Early diastolic