Endocarditis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocarditis Deck (30):
1

What is meant by bacteraemia?

Presence of bacteria in the bloodstream

2

What temperature are blood cultures kept at?

37'C

3

The presence of bacteraemia is diagnostic of endocarditis. True/False?

False
Just indicates that there is infection somewhere in the body, or that samples may be contaminated

4

What is the commonest coagulase -ve Staph organism?

Staph epidermidis

5

What does Staph epidermidis commonly contaminate?

Skin
Prosthetic material

6

What is infective endocarditis?

Infection of the heart valves

7

What are the commonest factors that predispose to endocarditis?

Rheumatic disease
Congenital abnormalities
IV drug users
Calcification/sclerosis
Prosthesis/intravascular lines

8

What is the general pathogenesis of endocarditis?

Damaged heart valves produce turbulent flow over irritated endothelium, causing platelet/fibrin deposition upon which bacteria settle, producing vegetation over the valve

9

Which organism is the most common cause of native valve endocarditis?

Staph aureus

10

Which organism is the 2nd commonest cause of native valve endocarditis?

Strep viridans

11

Name some atypical organisms that cause endocarditis

Coxiella burnetti
Brucella
Gram -ve organisms
Fungi

12

What are some symptoms of acute endocarditis?

Breathlessness
Fever
Tiredness
Malaise
Weight loss

13

What are some signs of endocarditis?

New/louder murmur
Clubbing
Splinter haemorrhage
Splenomegaly
Roth spots, Janeway lesions, Osler nodes

14

What are roth spots?

Retinal haemorrhages

15

What are Janeway lesions?

Nodular haemorrhagic lesions on palms and soles

16

What are Osler nodes?

Painful red lesions on palms and soles

17

How many blood cultures are taken for diagnosis of endocarditis?

3 sets

18

If 3 blood cultures are taken and only 1 comes back positive, what might have been the cause?

Contamination

19

Transthoracic echo is more effective than transoesophageal echo. True/False?

False

20

What organisms are usually responsible for prosthetic valve endocarditis?

Staph aureus
Staph epidermidis

21

Endocarditis in IV drug users predominately affects which side of the heart?

Right side (tricuspid valve)

22

How does Staph aureus endocarditis produce pneumonia?

Vegetation lodges in pulmonary circulation, causing inflammation, infection and abscess

23

Which antibiotics are given for native valve endocarditis?

Amoxicillin IV
Gentamicin IV

24

Which antibiotics are given for prosthetic valve endocarditis?

Vancomycin IV
Gentamicin IV

25

Which antibiotic is given for IV drug user endocarditis?

Flucloxacillin IV

26

Which antibiotics are given for MRSA endocarditis?

Vancomycin IV
Gentamicin IV

27

Which antibiotics are given for Strep viridans endocarditis?

Penicillin IV
Gentamicin IV

28

Which antibiotics are given for Enterococcus endocarditis?

Amoxicillin/Vancomycin IV
Gentamicin IV

29

Which antibiotics are given for Staph epidermidis endocarditis?

Vancomycin IV
Gentamicin IV

30

How long are IV antibiotics usually given for?

4-6 weeks