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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Overview Deck (13):
0

5 modifications found in fetal circulation?

Ductus venosus
Foramen ovale
Ductus arteriosis
Increased pulmonary resistance
Decreased RV dialstolic compliance

1

Where path does fetal blood to the brain take?
Where path fetal blood to the rest of the body take?

To the brain: Ductus venosus* -> IVC -> RA -> foramen ovale -> aorta -> brain.
To the body: SVC -> RA -> RV -> pulmonary artery -> ductus arteriosus -> descending aorta
*correctedd

2

Where path does fetal blood to the brain take?
Where path fetal blood to the rest of the body take?

To the brain: Ductus venosus* -> IVC -> RA -> foramen ovale -> aorta -> brain.
To the body: SVC -> RA -> RV -> pulmonary artery -> ductus arteriosus -> descending aorta
*corrected

3

What are 2 signals that lead to the closure of the ductus arteriosus?

Increased O2 concentration.
Withdrawal of PGE2.
(this change takes a little longer, and is usually done by 4 days)

4

What's cardiac output?

Liters blood pumped / minute

5

What's the cardiac index?

Cardiac output / body surface area.

6

What's the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)? Importance?

LVEF is fraction of blood present at end-diastole (filling) that gets ejected in systole. Normal is 55-70%. It's a crude measure of LV contractile performance.

7

Definition of compliance?

delta V / delta P

8

What's the relationship between pressure and velocity?

Bernoulli's: P + 0.5(rho)v^2 = Constant

9

What's LaPlace's principle?

Tension = pressure x radius
For a bigger vessel, the wall needs to be stronger to withstand a given pressure.

10

How is radius related to flow?

Flow is proportional to r^4, so small differences in radius make huge changes in flow.
(Poiseulles - also talks about viscosity)

11

What is Reynold's principle used for?

For determining at what velocity non-linear flow (a murmur) will occur.

12

How are flow, pressure, and resistance related?

Q (flow) = P / R