muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum and between the lungs. The heart consits of two upper chambers the right atrium and left atrium. Two lower chambers right and left ventricles. The left atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins. The left artium receives blood from the lungs. the left venricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. The atrial septum separates the atria and the ventricular septum separates the ventricles.
consist of the tricuspid and mitral valves. Valves keep blood flowing one direction.
pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta, respectively
two-layer sac surronding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer
three layers of the heart
epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
covers the heart
middle, thick, muscular layer
inner lining of the heart
tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. all arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells.
in contrast carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the hear to th lungs
largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
largest veins in the body.
microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules.
composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes
clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume
red blood cells that carry oxygen. Erythrocytes develop in bone marrow.
white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.
one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process
clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed
transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph. Lymph contains lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one-way direction to the heart. Lymph is similar to blood plasma.
similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. The vessels begin as capillaries spread throughout the body then merge into larger tubs that eventually become ducts in the chest. They provide a one-way flow for lymph gathered from the tissues to ducts in the chest, where lymph enters through the veins into the circulatory system.
small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue. They may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. The nodes filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood. They also produce lymphocytes.
located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm. In adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Blood, rather that lymph, flows through the spleen. Blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen. The spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.
one of the primary lymphatic organs, it is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs. It plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty. Around puberty the thymus gland atrophies so that most of the gland is connective tissue.
vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)