Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (103)
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1

heart

muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum and between the lungs. The heart consits of two upper chambers the right atrium and left atrium. Two lower chambers right and left ventricles. The left atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins. The left artium receives blood from the lungs. the left venricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. The atrial septum separates the atria and the ventricular septum separates the ventricles.

2

atrioventricular valves

consist of the tricuspid and mitral valves. Valves keep blood flowing one direction.

3

semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta, respectively

4

pericardium

two-layer sac surronding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer

5

three layers of the heart

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

6

epicardium

covers the heart

7

myocardium

middle, thick, muscular layer

8

endocardium

inner lining of the heart

9

blood vessels

tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body

10

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. all arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells.

11

pulmonary artery

in contrast carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the hear to th lungs

12

arterioles

smallest arteries

13

aorta

largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen

14

veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

15

venules

smallest vein

16

venae cavae

largest veins in the body.

17

capillaries

microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules.

18

blood

composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes

19

plasma

clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume

20

erythrocytes

red blood cells that carry oxygen. Erythrocytes develop in bone marrow.

21

leukocytes

white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.

22

platelets

one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process

23

serum

clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed

24

lymph

transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph. Lymph contains lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one-way direction to the heart. Lymph is similar to blood plasma.

25

lymphatic vessels

similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. The vessels begin as capillaries spread throughout the body then merge into larger tubs that eventually become ducts in the chest. They provide a one-way flow for lymph gathered from the tissues to ducts in the chest, where lymph enters through the veins into the circulatory system.

26

lymph nodes

small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue. They may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. The nodes filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood. They also produce lymphocytes.

27

spleen

located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm. In adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Blood, rather that lymph, flows through the spleen. Blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen. The spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.

28

thymus gland

one of the primary lymphatic organs, it is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs. It plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty. Around puberty the thymus gland atrophies so that most of the gland is connective tissue.

29

angi/o

vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)

30

aort/o

aorta