Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy 6511 > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (43)
1

Cardiovascular System

Tissues working together with structural relationship. Heart, vessels (include arteries, veins, cappilaries, arterioles, venules. Lungs technically a part as well, know w/respect to lungs.

2

Artery and veins

Mirror one another aesthetically.

3

Large veins exploited in clinics

Used for venopuncture. Putting in a line/injection. Superficial veins are one method of pharmaceutical/fluid delivery.

4

auscultation

Listening to sound - heart sounds, lungs, GI tract. Abdomen, GI, pulmonary, cardiac.

5

Midaxillary

Cuts body in thirds.

6

Midclavicular line

Exactly what it sounds like

7

T4 - T5 vertebral level

Corresponds to aortic arch. Also at level of 2nd rib. Also correlates to manubrial sternal joint. Also called sternal angle.

8

If you are talking about 2 vert for a location

Talking about intervertebral discs.

9

Auscultation points on thoracic region

Aortic valve, pulmonary valve (left and right of sternum between 2nd and 3rd rib). Tricuspid and mitral valve - bottom of sternal body and midway through rib 5.

10

Diastole

Filling - heart chambers.

11

Tricuspid

Right atrioventricular

12

superior border of the heart

at the 3rd costal cartilage on the R of the sternum and the 2nd intercostal space on the L of the sternum.

13

Heart sounds location


The tricuspid valve is heard just to the left of the lower part of the sternum near the 5th intercostal space
The mitral valve is heard over the apex of the heart in the L 5th intercostal space at the midclavicular line
The pulmonary valve is hear over the medial end of the L 2nd intercostal space.
The aortic valve is heard over the medial end of the R 2nd intercostal space.

14

Systole

Contracting/emptying of the heart.

15

Apex of heart

Anterior, inferior extent.

16

Coronary arteries

Aortic semilunar arteries - once you pass these, you have cardiac arteries. Cardiac veins flow directly into right atrium. This happens before the aortic arch*.

17

Just right of midline, deep in abdomen straight to brain, you have a

right side vena cava (venous channel). Fairly straight line to right femoral vein. Arteriole supply just left of midline.

18

To hear something, you must be

Out of the way of the sternum and downstream.

19

Tricuspid

Intercostal space of of 4th intercostal space, left of sternum.

20

Pulmonary valve

medial left 2nd intercostal space.

21

Mitral valve

left 5th intercostal space down midclavicular line.

22

Inferior border of heart..

moves due to diaphragm.

23

Cardiovascular system function

Transport - oxygen, nutrients, waste, hormones.

24

Left side of heart

Pump for systemic circuit - out to body cells. Left atrium receives oxygenated blood.

25

Right side of heart

Pump for pulmonary circuit.

26

Blood vessel walls have x layers

3

27

Tunica Interna or Tunica Intima

endothelium
basal lamina
subendothelial layer
(internal elastic membrane – arteries and some arterioles)

28

Vein walls

Never as thick as corresponding artery. They can collapse upon themselves. Lumen is larger than corresponding artery however.

29

Tunica Media

contains rings of smooth muscles cells responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation; can also contain sheets or lamellae or laminae of elastin
(external elastic membrane – arteries)

30

Tunica Externa or Tunica Adventitia

in larger vessels this tunic contains a vasa vasorum and a nervi vascularis.

31

Tunica media

Arteries thickest layer.

32

Veins

Veins – thickest layer is the tunica externa

33

Capilarries

Lost externa, lost media. Endothelial cells with basal lamina associated with it.

34

4 types of arteries

Elastic/conducting arteries (large)
Muscular or distributing arteries (medium)
Small Arteries
Arterioles

35

Elastic/conducting arteries (large)

Largest arteries. Diameter greater than 10 mm. Aorta, common illiacs. Lots of elastic fibers/lamellae, conducts blood away from heart even though heart is relaxing (acting as a pressure reserve due to elasticity). Elastic aorta pushed out with systole, *recoil of aorta adds pressure when in diastole. This keeps blood going at all times.

36

Muscular or distributing arteries (medium)

Medium - 2mm to 10 mm diameter. Most of named blood vessels are this. Contain a large amount of smooth muscle in tunica media. Distributing arteries -by them contracting/dilating, they can control blood flow to diff parts of body. Actin contraction will cause nuclei of smooth muscle cells to "twist."

37

Small arteries

0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. 3-8 layers smooth muscle in tunica media.

38

Arterioles

10 microm to 100 microm in diameter. Only one or two layers of smooth muscle in tunica media.

39

Capillaries

4 microm to 10 microm. Endothelial cells and basal lamina = wall. Allow exchange of materials.

40

Venules

10 microm to 100 microm. Two types - postcapillary (endothelial cell w/basal lamina and pericytes - no tunica media, no adventitia.
Muscular venule - tunica media w/1 or 2 layers of smotth muscle, thin tunica adventitia, no pericytes.

41

Small veins

0.1 mm to 1 mm in diameter, receive blood from muscular venule.

42

Medium Veins

Medium Veins – 1mm to 10mm in diameter; all three layers present.

43

Large Veins

Large Veins – larger than 10mm in diameter; all three layers present.