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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Terms Deck (98):
1

afterload

the pressure in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection

2

aorta

major artery of the systemic circulation that receives blood from the left ventricle

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aortic valve

the left semilunar valve; blood from the left ventricle flows through it into the aorta

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apex of heart

pointed, caudal end of the heart

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arteries

carry blood away from the heart

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arteriole

the smallest branches of the arterial tree, their small diameter help provide pressure resistance, therefore maintaining blood pressure

7

atrioventricular node

located in the atrioventricular septum receives the impulse generated by the SA node to complete a contraction

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atrioventricular septum

formed by the interventricular septum and the interatrial septum

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atrioventricular valve

aka, AV valves; located between the atria and the ventricles

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atrium

receive blood into the heart

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auricle

ear shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart

12

auscultation

listening with the ear or with a stethoscope to the sounds of the body

13

autorhythmic

does not need outside stimulus to start beating in a steady rhythm

14

base of heart

the rounded cranial end of the heart

15

bicuspid valve

the left AV valve composed of 2 cusps, aka the mitral valve

16

blood pressure

a measure of the amount of pressure flowing blood exerts on the arterial walls

17

bundle of his

bundle of cardiac muscle fibers that conducts the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat, from the atrioventricular node in the right atrium to the septum between the ventricles and then to the left and right ventricles

18

capillaries

form the transition between arteries and veins

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cardiac cycle

generated by the SA node; produces one heartbeat; one cycle of atrial and ventricular contraction and relaxation

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cardiac output

the amount of blood that leaves the heart

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cardiovascular system

aka, the circulatory system; responsible for the movement of blood and everything it carries throughout the animal's body

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carotid artery

located near the jugular vein, carries blood very quickly to the brain, can cause seizures if anything is injected into it

23

cephalic vein

located on the thoracic limb

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chordae tendonae

fine, thread-like cords that connect the two atrioventricular valves to the appropriate papillary muscles in the ventricles

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coccygeal vein

in ruminants and rodents, carries blood from the tail to the vena cava

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coronary artery

branch off the aorta just past the aortic valve (left semilunar valve)

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coronary sinus

a channel formed where the coronary veins join together near the right atrium to drain blood directly into the right atrium

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coronary vein

where blood enters after passing through the myocardium from capillaries

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cusps

three flaps of endothelium that compose the right AV valve

30

depolarization

a reduction in the voltage across a neuron or muscle cell membrane from its normal polarized state (resting membrane potential), this results in action potential (nerve impulse) in the case of a neuron or the initiation of contraction in the case of a muscle cell

31

diastole

the part of the cardiac cycle associated with relaxation of the atria and ventricles and the filling of the chambers with blood

32

diastolic blood pressure

the second number in a recorded reading, measures the pressure remaining in the artery during left ventricular diastole when the ventricle is relaxing and refilling with blood

33

doppler echocardiogram

more sophisticated ultrasound procedure that measures blood flow through the heart and adds color to the image , useful for evaluating valvular stenosis and insufficiency

34

ductus arteriosus

the 2nd bypass that allows fetal blood the bypass lung tissue

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echo/echocardiography

cardiac ultrasound; uses ultrasound to bounce sound waves off parts of the heart to watch the heart beating

36

elastic artery

have the greatest ability to stretch when blood passes through them because they have a large number of elastic fibers in the middle layers of their walls; found closest to the heart

37

electrogradiogram

a recording of the electrical activity of the heart

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electrocardiography

produces an electrocardiogram based on electrical activity of the heart

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endocardium

the innermost layer of the heart

40

endothelium

composed of simple squamous epithelium and it lines the heart, blood vessels and serous cavities of the body

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epicardium

outermost layer of the heart

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femoral vein

located on the pelvic limb of dogs and cats, carries blood to the iliac vein, which joins with the vena cava

43

foramen ovale

the first bypass between the right and left atria that allows fetal blood to bypass the lung issue because blood has already been oxygenated by the mother

44

heart rate

how often the heart contracts, stated in beats per minute

45

interatrial septum

a continuum of the myocardium that separates the left atrium and the right atrium

46

interventricular groove

the area of the interventricular septum that is visible on the outside of the heart; contains blood vessels and is frequently filled with fat

47

interventricuar septum

continuation of the interatial septum; separates the left and right ventricles

48

jugular vein

travel in muscular grooves along the ventral aspect of each side of the neck, from mandible to shoulder

49

mean arterial pressure

third value in a reading, the average pressure during one cardiac cycle and can be used as an indication of tissue perfusion in an anesthetized animal

50

mediastinum

the area of the thorax between the lungs, contains the heart and most of the other thoracic structures such as the trachea, esophagus, blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic structures

51

mitral valve

aka bicuspid valve; separates the left atrium and ventricle and protects the pulmonary venous system from the high pressures in the left ventricle during systole

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murmur

the turbulence in the blood flow of valvular insufficiency

53

muscular artery

have more smooth muscle fibers, found further away from the heart usually direct blood to specific organs and tissues

54

myocardium

the middle layer of the heart and the main muscle layer responsible for contraction during systole

55

oscillometric method

a cuff is placed over the area of an artery and inflated until blood flow either stops if nearly stops, the air is gradually released from the cuff and the magnitude and frequency of pulsations is recorded

56

p wave

the time it takes the wave of depolarization to travel from the SA node through the atria

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papillary muscle

muscular, nipple like projections in the heart that anchor the chordae tendonae, when contracted they act to open the atrioventricular heart valves

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parietal layer of the serous pericardium

a smooth, moist serous membrane that lines the pericardial sac

59

pericardial fluid

fluid within the pericardial space that lubricates the parietal and visceral membrane layers of the serous pericardium to prevent friction during contraction and relaxation of the heart

60

pericardial sac

fibrous sac of the pericardium, lose to allow beating, but not elastic, so it can not stretch if the heart becomes abnormally large

61

pericardial space

the area between the 2 serous membranes (parietal and visceral) and is filled with pericardial fluid

62

pericardium

tissue that forms a sac around the heart to protect it and control the movement of the heart within the thorax

63

preload

the volume of blood the ventricle receives from the atrium

64

pulmonary artery

artery arising from the right ventricle that delivers blood into the pulmonary circulation

65

pulmonary circulation

part of the circulatory system that delivers un-oxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart; controlled by the right side of the heart

66

pulmonary valve

a semilunar valve that separates the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery during ventricular diastole

67

pulse

the rate of alternating stretching and recoiling of the elastic fibers in an artery as blood passes through it with each heart beat

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pulse wave

stretching and recoiling that travels through all the arteries and arterioles and dissipates in the capillaries

69

purkinje fiber system

fibers that pick up impulses, makes a u-turn, then caries them from the bundle of his up into the right and left ventricular myocardium

70

qrs complex

the time of ventricular depolarization

71

repolarization

the process following depolarization wherein potassium ions diffuse rapidly out of the neuron

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saphenous vein

located in the pelvic limb, commonly used in dogs, carries blood to the femoral vein

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semilunar valve

the 2 valves that control blood flow out of the ventricles and into arteries

74

serous pericardium

part of the pericardium; consists of 2 membranes layers, the parietel and visceral layers

75

sinoatrial node

a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that act as the heat's pacemaker; the impulse that starts each heartbeat is initiated in the SA node

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sphygmomanometer

instrument for measuring blood pressure

77

stroke volume

the amount of blood ejected with each cardiac cycle

78

systemic circulation

the part of the circulatory system that produces blood flow to and away from all the body tissues except the lungs, controlled by the left side of the heart

79

systole

period in the cardiac cycle of contraction when the chambers discharge blood out to the rest of the body, it is the time interval between the first and second heart sounds

80

systolic blood pressure

first pressure reading; should be the highest number, produced by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle into the systemic circulation by way of the aorta

81

systolic discharge

aka stroke volume; the amount of blood ejected with each cardiac cycle

82

t wave

the time of ventricular relaxation (repolarization)

83

tricuspid valve

aka right atrioventricular valve; separates the right atrium and ventricle

84

umbilical artery

arteries that carry carbon dioxide-rich waste filled blood from the fetus to the placenta through the umbilical cord ]

85

umbilical vein

the vein in the umbilical cord that carries oxygen and nutrient-rich blood from the placenta to the fetus

86

valvular insuffienciency

a heart condition where one or more of the cardiac valves don't close all the way

87

valvular stenosis

a heart condition where any one or more of the cardiac valves don't open all the way

88

veins

carry blood toward the heart

89

vena cava

the large vein that brings deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the heart

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ventricle

pump blood out of the heart

91

venule

tiny veins formed by capillaries, eventually form veins once they expand in diameter

92

visceral layer if the serous pericardium

the part of the serous pericardium that lies directly on the surface of the heart

93

startling's law

the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart when all other factors remain constant

94

phases of the cardiac cycle

diastole and systole

95

lub (s1)

tricuspid and mitral (atrioventricular) valves snap shut to prevent back flow and pulmonary and aortic valves are opening; occurs at the beginning of ventricular contraction

96

dub (s2)

pulmonary and aortic (arterial) valves are snapping shut and the tricuspid and mitral valves are opening; occurs at the beginning of ventricular relaxation

97

role of the atria in cardiac cycle

ensures the maximum filling of the ventricles; atrioventricular valves remain open as the atria contracts and the semilunar valves are closed during atrial contraction

98

phases of the cardiac cycle

1. ventricular filling and atrial filling 2. ventricular contraction - period of isovolumetric contraction - systole 3. ventricular contraction - period of ejection - systole 4. reduced ventricular ejection - protodiastole 5. isovolumetric relaxation 6. rapid filling 7. reduced filling