Immune System Flashcards Preview

Animal Physiology > Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune System Deck (59):
1

blood proteins in plasma

albumins, globulins, and fibrogens

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albumins

prevent water from leaving the blood and entering tissues

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globulins

the building blocks of antibodies, assist in the transport of proteins

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fibrogens

form blood clots

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erythrocytes

red blood cells that transport O2 from the lungs to tissues and transport CO2 from tissues to lungs

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hemoglobin

globular protein, the iron atom located within this cell binds to a rbc and gives it the red color

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anemia

too few rbc's or insufficient amount of hemoglobin, which can cause fatigue and may be associated with lack of iron on the diet

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what wbc produces antibodies?

lymphocytes

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megakaryocytes

a large bone marrow cell with a lobulated nucleus responsible for the production of platelets, which are necessary for normal blood clotting

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plasmin

plasma protein that develops after healing to dissolve a clot/scab

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thrombus

blood clot that blocks a blood vessel

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embolus

formed when blood clot dislodges from a vessel and begins traveling through the blood stream

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hemophilia

disease in which blood lacks a clotting factor

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pathogens

anything that can cause a disease

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first line of immune defense

physical barriers such as skin or the trachea, and chemical barriers such as stomach acid, sweat or tears

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second line of defense

inflammatory response with cellular and chemical components

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inflammatory response

rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), and dolor (pain)

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complement proteins

plasma proteins that attract phagocytes to the site of infection

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third line of defense

targets specific pathogens; the immune response and antibodies with special cells with the ability to recognize and destroy the virus/bacteria

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antigen

protein or sugar molecules on the surface of microbes

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what wbc are responsible for recognizing foreign microbes?

lymphocytes

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internal protection

spleen, lymphatic system, lymph nodes, and the thymus

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the two parts of the immune system

innate and adaptive

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innate immune system

is rapid and nonspecific
present at birth
destroys non-self invaders
uses physical chemical and cellular components to protect body

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adaptive immune system

slow to respond
not present at birth
targets specific organisims
develops and adapts as animal is exposed to antigens

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internal innate defense

when a pathogen makes its way past physical barriers, the body controls spread of infection through acute inflammation

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fever

side effect of inflammation, response where chemical mediators are carried throughout the body to kill pathogens

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cells capable of phagocytosis

neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendrite cells

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cytokines

attract immune cells to a specific site
autocrine, paracrine, endocrine

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types of cytokines

interleukins, interferons, and chemokines

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interferons

cytokines produced in response to a viral infection

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chemokines

cytokines that stimulate the movement of leukocytes from blood to the injury/inflammatory site

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interleukins

cytokines that are secreted rapidly, and briefly, in response to a stimulus, such as an infectious agent

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natural killer cells

found in blood and lymph, and are part of both the innate and adaptive immune systems

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b lymphocytes

part of humoral immunity; programmed to secrete immunoglobulin (ig) antibodies

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t lymphocytes

part of cell-mediated immunity; activate b-cells

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memory cells

clones of t-cells and b-cells that have been activated in an immune response; stronger and quicker than initial response

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humoral immunity

triggered by extracellular pathogens
results in the production of immunoglobulins by b-cells/plasma cells
targets specific antigens for destruction

39

cell-mediated immunity

acts against intracellular pathogens
t-cells attach directly to antigen markers on surfaces of phagocytes that have already processed the pathogen

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immunoglobulins

different types of antibodies; igm, igg, iga, ige, igd

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helper cells

t-h cells that help immune system by secreting cytokines

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cytotoxic cells

t-c cells, aka effector cells or killer cells; attach to antigenic markers on cells and destroy those cells

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regulatory cells

t-s cells that inhibit t-h and t-c cell function and also prevent b-cells from transforming into plasma cells

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active immunity

result of an active immune process; natural immunity or provided by vaccines (modified live or killed viruses)

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passive immunity

no activation needed to warrant immune protection; receiving antibodies from an external source such as maternal antibodies via the placenta or colostrum; protection lost once antibodies leave system

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proteins and other chemicals normally dissolved in the plasma portion of whole blood

clotting factors

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the component of whole blood made up of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes

cellular

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the liquid portion of whole blood after the blood cells have been removed

plasma

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the liquid portion of whole blood if no anticoagulant is added to a blood sample

serum

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blood flowing through the animal's body and blood as it leaves the animal's body prior to the addition of an anticoagulant

whole blood

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microbes

potential pathogens that can cause harm to the body

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chemical barriers for the innate system 1st line of defense

stomach acid, sweat, tears, saliva, nasal discharges and urine

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physical barriers for the innate system 1st line of defense

skin and mucous membranes

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body pathways that require protective mechanisms

respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract

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macrophage

a moncoyte that has been called into a specific tissue

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dendrite cells

a guard macrophage that can capture invading pathogens and take them to the lymph nodes for destruction

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internal protection organs and tissues

spleen, lymph nodes, malt, tonsils, peyer's patches, thymus red bone marrow

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pattern recognition receptors (prr)

work with the pamp on a cell's membrane to allow the macrophage to recognize and attach to the pathogen and trigger an immune respons

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pathogen associated molecular patterns (pamp)

are found on the membrane surface of invading pathogens and work with prr to recognize common structures shared by a large group of pathogens