which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?
which type of blood vessel carries blood toward the heart?
what are two parts of the cardiovascular system?
pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
which part of the cardiovascular system carries blood to and from the left rear leg of a pony?
what structures are found in the mediastinum?
heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, nerves
which is located more caudally in a standing pig, the base of the heart or the apex?
what is the difference between the endocardium and the epicardium?
the endocardium is the membrane that lines the chambers of the heart; it lies on the internal surface of the myocardium; the epicardium lies on the external surface of the myocardium and is synonymous with the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
which sits closer to the base of the heart, the left atrium or the right ventricle?
the left atrium
what is the name of the structure that is a continuation of the myocardium that forms a wall between the two atria?
what is the name of the structure that is a continuation of the myocardium that forms a wall between the two ventricles?
why is the wall of the right ventricle thinner than the wall of the left ventricle?
because the right ventricle doesn’t have to pump as hard to get blood into pulmonary circulation as the left ventricle does to get blood into systemic circulation
what is the function of the chordae tendonae?
to prevent the AV valves from opening backward into atria
what is another name for the right av valve?
what is another name for the right ventricle semilunar valve?
what is another name for the left av valve?
what is another name for the left ventricular semilunar valve?
what is the order in which blood flows?
aortic valve, aorta, systemic circulation, vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary circulation, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle
what is the pacemaker of the heart and where is it located?
the SA node, in the wall of the right atrium
what four conductors make up the rapid conduction system for an impulse created by the heart's pacemaker?
SA node, AV node, bundle of his, purkinje fiber system
what is the working phase of the cardiac cycle?
what is happening in the other three heart chambers during left atrial diastole?
right atrial diastole, right and left ventricular systole
when the mitral valve is forced closed, it produces part of which heart sound, the first or the second?
first sound; the sound of the AV valves closing (lub)
stroke volume is a measurement of what?
amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during one contraction
if the cardiac cycle output and stroke volume both decrease, what has to happen to the heart rate to achieve equilibrium?
the heart rate will have to increase
what is the difference between the preload and the afterload in reference to the stroke volume?
the preload is the amount of blood the ventricle receives from the atrium; the afterload is the amount of physical resistance presented by the aorta
how could mitral valve stenosis affect the stroke volume?
it could decrease stroke volume because the valve is not opening all the way so less blood is being delivered to the ventricle. In other words, the preload will decrease.
from the aortic valve in the left ventricle to the right atrium, what type of blood vessels will blood travel through?
aorta, large to small elastic arteries, large to small muscular arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, small to large veins, vena cava, right atrium
is the coronary artery a muscular or elastic artery, and why?
elastic because it has to be able to withstand the high pressure of the blood leaving the left ventricle via the aorta
in a pregnant ewe, which are the only two veins that are carrying oxygenated blood?
the pulmonary vein that carries oxygenated blood to the left atrium from the pulmonary circulation and the umbilical vein that carries oxygenated blood from the mother to the fetus
what two bypass structures are found in the fetus that allow most of its blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation?
foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
what is the difference between heart rate and pulse?
the heart rate measures the number of ventricular contractions in 1 minute; the pulse measures the rate of alternating stretching and recoiling of an elastic artery wall as blood passes through it over 1 minute
what does systolic blood pressure measure?
the pressure produced in an artery by the blood ejected from the left ventricle during systole
what is the difference between ecg and an echo?
the ecg detects the electrical activity in the heart and is used to evaluate the cardiac conduction system; the echo uses ultrasound waves bounced off the heart to evaluate size, shape, and movement of the heart
which vein can be used in most common animal species for venipuncture?
the bilateral jugular veins located in jugular grooves on the ventral aspect of the neck from the mandible to the shoulder
what lead is placed on the right forelimb for an ecg?
what does the formation of the s wave represent?
the impulses traveling through the ventricular base
what is ventricular isovolumetric contraction?
the interval when both the semilunar and atriventricular valves are closed
what controls heart rate?
autonomic nervous system - sns and psns; humoral factos - beta 1 receptors and muscarinic 2 receptors
what controls cardiac stroke volume?
preload, afterload, contractility, distensibility, synergy of ventricular contraction
how does the psns effect heart rate?
psns releases acetylcholine which decreases the heart rate
how does the sns effect heart rate?
sns releases norepinephrine which results in increasing the heart rate