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Flashcards in Cards Deck (34):
1

What electrolyte disorder is common in myleoma

hypercalcaemia

2

what are the presenting features of myeloma

Older adults - median age 60 years; male more than female
Anaemia
Bone pain - most common in the back or ribs; may present as a pathologic fracture following minimal trauma, especially of the femoral neck
Infection - commonly with encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae; due to suppression of antibody production and neutropenia
Hypercalcaemia - nausea, fatigue, confusion, polyuria, constipation
Weight loss is common
Hyperviscosity.

3

What is a common cause of post operative foot drop

pressure on the common peroneal nerve during anaesthesia
ensure padding on the fibula head during operations

4

why is a central neurological cause unlikely to result in foot drop

would not cause a well defined peripheral nerve lesion

5

give common causes of hypercalcaemia

primary hyperparathyroidism
hypercalcaemia of malignancy
paraneoplastic syndrome
lymphoma
thyrotoxicosis

6

what blood features might you find in severe boughts of prolonged vomiting

high serum aldosterone
hypochlorydia
hypokalaemia
tetany (caused by metabolic acidosis)

7

would you expect high or low bicarb in a metabolic acidosis

low (this is not compensation)

8

what are the functions of aldosterone

steroid hormone that retains sodium

9

what is the opposite of aldosterone

atrial naturetic peptide

10

what is a strain pattern on an ECG?

left ventricular hypertrophy
large voltages in the chest leads
ST depression and T wave inversion

with hypertension suggests end organ damage

11

what is the inheritance pattern of haemophillia A

X linked recessive

12

will the son of a haemophilliac have haemophillia

no because they inherit the X chromosome from their mother

13

what artery originates from the left posterior aortic sinus

left coronary artery

14

what artery supplies the AV node

right coronary artery

15

what vessel opens into the right atrium

coronary sinus

16

what artery supplies the apex of the heart

LAD

17

what artery lies in the anterior atrioventricular groove

right coronary artery

18

what artery runs in the posterior AV groove

circumflex

19

what are the commonest causes of optic atrophy

glaucoma
MS
compression due to aneurysms
Pagets disease
tumours

20

what conditions are associated with blue sclerae

osteogenesis imperfecta
ehlers danlos syndrome
marfans syndrome
chronic corticosteroid use
Fe deficiency anaemia

due to underlying choroidal veins showing through the thin sclera

21

what is cushings disease

pituitary dependent cushings syndrome

22

what are the features of TTP

pupura, fever, haemolytic anaemia, microvascular thrombosis, renal failure, mild stroke, fragmented red cells

23

what can cause TTP

cytotoxic drugs
SLE
pregnancy
oral contraceptive use
usually no known cause

24

what is haemolytic uraemic syndrome

haemolytic anaemia
acute kidney failure
thrombocytopaenia

25

what are the features of scurvy

occurs in people with poor nutrition
perifollicular skin bleeding
prolonged bleeding time
vit C deficiency
weakness
tiredness
sore arms and legs
gum disease
hair changes

26

what are features of EDS

abnormal velvety hyperelastic skin
poor skin healing
hyperextensible joints
purpura
psuedotumours from organisations of haematomas from injuries
hydrarthrosis
repeated falls

27

what is henloch schonlein pupura

arthritis
colicky abdo pain
arthritis
polyarthritis
purpura
melaena
haematemesis
obstruction
intussusception
glomerulonephritis

28

what investigation should you give patients on warfarin with a history of a loss of consciousness

CT head

29

what is a mallory weiss tear

occurs following episodes of vomiting following alcohol or gastroenteritis
they require no intervention

30

how can you lower portal pressure

beta blockers

31

what can cause a small pupil

horners syndrome
old age
pontine haemorrhage
argyll robertson pupil
drugs
opiates

32

what causes dilated pupils

holmes adie pupil
third nerve palsy
drugs
atropine
CO
ethylene glycol

33

what is a holmes adie pupul

dilated pupil that reacts more to accomodation than light
infection to cilliary ganglion (psymp)

34

what are the features of turners syndrom

abnormal breast development
coarctation of the aorta
increased incidence of bone fractures
infantile lymphodema
primary amenorrhoea
hypertension
facies
fold of skin on neck
elbow deformity
brown nevi
widely spaced nipples
shield shaped thorax
low hairline
webbing of neck