Flashcards in Cat Bronchial Deck (46):
Kitty asthma is also known as what?
Idiopathic feline bronchitis
What is the typical signalment for idiopathic feline bronchitis?
- Young to middle aged (1-3 years)
- Siamese are predisposed
Clinical signs of idiopathic feline bronchitis (asthma) can range in a spectrum from what to what?
From chronic/intermittent coughing to acute respiratory distress.
What are 2 clinical signs of acute respiratory distress that can be seen with idiopathic feline bronchitis?
- Open mouth breathing
- Audible wheezing
What are 3 clinical findings that can be heard on auscultation with idiopathic feline bronchitis?
- Increased expiratory effort
Are systemic signs present with idiopathic feline bronchitis?
What are 3 diagnostic tests that are included in a first tier work up for a coughing/wheezing in cats that are suspected of idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?
- Fecal exam
What are 2 types of diagnostic tests that might be used in a second tier round of testing in a work up for a coughing/wheezing cat suspected of idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?
- Transtracheal wash (TTW)/bronchoscopy
What is seen in 23% of thoracic radiographs of cats with idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?
What is the most common type of lung pattern seen with radiographs of idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?
What can be seen radiographically in 10% of IFB/asthma cases?
Collapse of right middle lung lobe.
What are 3 less common signs that can be seen radiographically with IFB/asthma cases?
- Reticular interstitial/patchy alveolar opacities
- Hyperinflation of lungs
- Flattening of diaphragm
What often precedes radiographic changes with IFB/asthma?
What is the term used for constriction of small airways, not allowing inspired air to be exhaled causing the lungs to over-inflate?
What are 2 possible cytological changes that can be seen with feline asthma?
- Increased eosinophils or neutrophils
- Mixed inflammation
What are 2 cytological changes that can be seen with infectious etiologies to help differentiate from feline asthma?
- Degenerate neutrophils
- Intracellular bacteria
If a culture comes back positive, the cause is most likely not what?
What is a possibility to consider?
- Not likely asthma
- Consider possibility of secondary infection
What are 4 aspects of treating acute-emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction?
- No stress
- Oxygen rich environment
- Rapid acting corticosteroid
What are 2 options of bronchodilators for the treatment of acute-emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction?
- Terbutaline 0.01 mg/kg SQ
- Albuterol via MDI or orally
What does MDI stand for?
Metered dosing inhaler
What rapid acting corticosteroid can be used in the treatment of acute-emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction?
Dexmethasone SQ or IM
What are 2 forms of long-term treatment and management of feline asthma?
- Environmental management
What are 2 ways to environmentally manage feline asthma long-term?
- Improve indoor air quality
- Eliminate potential allergens and potential irritants
What are 3 glucocorticoid options that help control airway inflammation with long-term management of feline asthma?
- MDI: Fluticasone proprionate and Beclomethasone
What is a glucocorticoid that can be used for patients that cannot be medicated orally?
What can be used once signs are controlled with oral steroids?
Metered dose inhaler (MDI)
What are 2 examples of MDIs?
- Fluticasone proprionate (Flovent or Flixotide)
- Beclomethasone (Qvar or Becotide)
What are 3 advantages of using an MDI?
- Minimize systemic corticosteroid side effects
- Easier to treat
- Higher concentrations delivered to lungs
What are 3 disadvantages of using an MDI?
- Increased risk of dental disease
- Re-emergence of latent herpesvirus infection
- Local dermatitis
It is recommended not to start an MDI until there is what?
Good control with systemic glucocorticoids.
How long should the face mask be held over the face during MDI application?
How long should you wait in between administering MDI doses?
What is indicated for the chronic management when large quantities of glucocorticoid (GC) required or when there is adverse reaction to GC or when the owner can't use MDI?
What is an example of an oral bronchodilator?
What is a bronchodilator that can be given SQ at night in crisis?
Why does a bolus of water need to be given after a dose of doxycycline?
Prevent esophageal structure formation.
What are 3 antibiotics that can be given as a therapeutic trial for Mycoplasma?
Since feline asthma is a chronic disorder, some form of what is needed in most cases?
Long term glucocorticoids
If cats are medically treated long term for feline asthma, what is the prognosis for control of signs?
If feline asthma is left untreated, what might develop?
Permanent changes of chronic bronchitis with irreversible damage (fibrosis) and emphysema.
What is the typical signalment for chronic airway inflammation?
What are 4 characteristics of chronic bronchitis?
- Neutrophilic inflammation
- Mucosal edema
- Mucus gland hypertrophy
- Excessive mucus production
Clinical signs for chronic bronchitis are often indistinguishable from what other condition?
One is a clinical sign that chronic bronchitis rarely has?
What is a clinical sign of chronic bronchitis that can be seen on a daily or almost daily basis?