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Flashcards in Cat Bronchial Deck (46):
1

Kitty asthma is also known as what?

Idiopathic feline bronchitis

2

What is the typical signalment for idiopathic feline bronchitis?

- Young to middle aged (1-3 years)
- Siamese are predisposed

3

Clinical signs of idiopathic feline bronchitis (asthma) can range in a spectrum from what to what?

From chronic/intermittent coughing to acute respiratory distress.

4

What are 2 clinical signs of acute respiratory distress that can be seen with idiopathic feline bronchitis?

- Open mouth breathing
- Audible wheezing

5

What are 3 clinical findings that can be heard on auscultation with idiopathic feline bronchitis?

- Wheezes
- Crackles
- Increased expiratory effort

6

Are systemic signs present with idiopathic feline bronchitis?

No

7

What are 3 diagnostic tests that are included in a first tier work up for a coughing/wheezing in cats that are suspected of idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?

- Radiographs
- CBC
- Fecal exam

8

What are 2 types of diagnostic tests that might be used in a second tier round of testing in a work up for a coughing/wheezing cat suspected of idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?

- Transtracheal wash (TTW)/bronchoscopy
- Cytology/culture

9

What is seen in 23% of thoracic radiographs of cats with idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?

Normal lungs

10

What is the most common type of lung pattern seen with radiographs of idiopathic feline bronchitis/asthma?

Bronchial pattern

11

What can be seen radiographically in 10% of IFB/asthma cases?

Collapse of right middle lung lobe.

12

What are 3 less common signs that can be seen radiographically with IFB/asthma cases?

- Reticular interstitial/patchy alveolar opacities
- Hyperinflation of lungs
- Flattening of diaphragm

13

What often precedes radiographic changes with IFB/asthma?

Clinical signs

14

What is the term used for constriction of small airways, not allowing inspired air to be exhaled causing the lungs to over-inflate?

Air-trapping

15

What are 2 possible cytological changes that can be seen with feline asthma?

- Increased eosinophils or neutrophils
- Mixed inflammation

16

What are 2 cytological changes that can be seen with infectious etiologies to help differentiate from feline asthma?

- Degenerate neutrophils
- Intracellular bacteria

17

If a culture comes back positive, the cause is most likely not what?
What is a possibility to consider?

- Not likely asthma
- Consider possibility of secondary infection

18

What are 4 aspects of treating acute-emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction?

- No stress
- Oxygen rich environment
- Rapid acting corticosteroid
- Bronchodilator

19

What are 2 options of bronchodilators for the treatment of acute-emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction?

- Terbutaline 0.01 mg/kg SQ
- Albuterol via MDI or orally

20

What does MDI stand for?

Metered dosing inhaler

21

What rapid acting corticosteroid can be used in the treatment of acute-emergency life threatening bronchoconstriction?

Dexmethasone SQ or IM

22

What are 2 forms of long-term treatment and management of feline asthma?

- Environmental management
- Glucocorticoids

23

What are 2 ways to environmentally manage feline asthma long-term?

- Improve indoor air quality
- Eliminate potential allergens and potential irritants

24

What are 3 glucocorticoid options that help control airway inflammation with long-term management of feline asthma?

- Prednisolone/prednisone
- Depo-Medrol
- MDI: Fluticasone proprionate and Beclomethasone

25

What is a glucocorticoid that can be used for patients that cannot be medicated orally?

Depo-Medrol

26

What can be used once signs are controlled with oral steroids?

Metered dose inhaler (MDI)

27

What are 2 examples of MDIs?

- Fluticasone proprionate (Flovent or Flixotide)
- Beclomethasone (Qvar or Becotide)

28

What are 3 advantages of using an MDI?

- Minimize systemic corticosteroid side effects
- Easier to treat
- Higher concentrations delivered to lungs

29

What are 3 disadvantages of using an MDI?

- Increased risk of dental disease
- Re-emergence of latent herpesvirus infection
- Local dermatitis

30

It is recommended not to start an MDI until there is what?

Good control with systemic glucocorticoids.

31

How long should the face mask be held over the face during MDI application?

5-10 seconds

32

How long should you wait in between administering MDI doses?

30-60 seconds

33

What is indicated for the chronic management when large quantities of glucocorticoid (GC) required or when there is adverse reaction to GC or when the owner can't use MDI?

Oral bronchodilator

34

What is an example of an oral bronchodilator?

Oral Theophylline

35

What is a bronchodilator that can be given SQ at night in crisis?

Terbutaline

36

Why does a bolus of water need to be given after a dose of doxycycline?

Prevent esophageal structure formation.

37

What are 3 antibiotics that can be given as a therapeutic trial for Mycoplasma?

- Doxycycline
- Chloramphenicol
- Azithromycin

38

Since feline asthma is a chronic disorder, some form of what is needed in most cases?

Long term glucocorticoids

39

If cats are medically treated long term for feline asthma, what is the prognosis for control of signs?

Good prognosis

40

If feline asthma is left untreated, what might develop?

Permanent changes of chronic bronchitis with irreversible damage (fibrosis) and emphysema.

41

What is the typical signalment for chronic airway inflammation?

Older cats

42

What are 4 characteristics of chronic bronchitis?

- Neutrophilic inflammation
- Mucosal edema
- Mucus gland hypertrophy
- Excessive mucus production

43

Clinical signs for chronic bronchitis are often indistinguishable from what other condition?

Feline asthma

44

One is a clinical sign that chronic bronchitis rarely has?

Life-threatening bronchoconstriction

45

What is a clinical sign of chronic bronchitis that can be seen on a daily or almost daily basis?

Coughing

46

Management of chronic bronchitis focuses on control of what using what?

- Control of inflammation
- Using glucocorticoids