Respiratory Flashcards Preview

SAM 2 > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (113):
1

Nasal discharge is commonly seen with which type of airway disorder, upper or lower?

Upper

2

Sneezing and reverse sneezing are often seen with which type of respiratory disorder, upper or lower?

Upper

3

Coughing is a hallmark sign of what 2 types of disorders?

- Lower respiratory
- Heart disease

4

What are 3 audible sounds that can be heard with an upper respiratory disorder?

- Stertor
- Stridor
- Snoring

5

Respiratory distress is seen with which type of airway disorder, upper or lower?

Lower

6

An inability to breathe easily if mouth is closed is seen with which type of respiratory disorder, upper or lower?

Upper

7

With lower airway disorders, is there an increased effort seen on inspiration or expiration?

Expiration

8

Pawing at the face can be a sign of which type of respiratory disorder, upper or lower?

Upper

9

What is almost always seen with nasal cavity disease?

Nasal discharge

10

What are 2 examples of pulmonary parenchymal diseases where mucopurulent nasal discharge can be seen?

- Pneumonia
- Eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy

11

What are 3 examples of systemic coagulopathies with which bloody nasal discharge can present?

- Ehrlichia
- Warfarin toxicity
- Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)

12

What are 4 types of nasal discharge?

- Serous
- Mucopurulent
- Mucoid
- Hemorrhagic

13

What are 3 questions to ask when characterizing nasal discharge?

- Uni- or Bi- lateral?
- Duration?
- Changes over time?

14

Acute nasal discharge is often accompanied by what?

Sneezing

15

What are 6 assessments that should be performed when examining an animal with nasal discharge?

- Nasal airflow
- Ocular retropulsion
- Depress soft palate
- Regional lymph nodes
- Facial/head
- Oral examination

16

What are 2 techniques that can be used to examine nasal airflow?

- Glass slide technique
- Wisp of cotton technique

17

What type of regional lymph nodes are examined when nasal discharge is present?

Submandibular

18

An oral exam might uncover what possible cause of nasal discharge?

Tooth abscess

19

Sneezing localizes disease to where?

Nasal cavity

20

What is considered a protective mechanism of the upper airway?

Sneezing

21

What type of dogs are more pre-disposed to reverse sneezing?

Small breed dogs

22

Loud breathing can localize an obstruction to what two general areas?

- Nasal cavity
- Upper airway

23

A "gurgling or snoring" sound is known as what?

Stertor

24

Stertor is caused by rapid air flow past what type of obstruction?

"Soft tissue" obstruction

25

Narrowing of the nasal cavity, elongated soft palate and edematous or everted laryngeal saccules can all cause what type of respiratory sound?

Stertor

26

A high pitched noise or whine usually heard on inspiration is known as what?

Stridor

27

Expiratory stridor can occur with what condition?

Intrathoracic tracheal collapse

28

Is stridor more commonly heard on inspiration or expiration?

Inspiration

29

Stridor is caused by rapid air flow past what type of obstruction?

"Rigid" obstruction

30

Laryngeal paralysis and nasopharyngeal stenosis can cause what respiratory sound?

Stridor

31

It may be necessary to auscult over the neck region to hear which respiratory sound?

Stridor

32

Can laryngeal paralysis be life threatening?

Yes

33

What is considered a hallmark of trachea/lung disease (lower airways) or cardiac failure?
What 4 things are used to distinguish between the two?

- Cough
- Signalment, history, PE findings, thoracic radiography

34

Pneumonia and emphysema are 2 examples of what type of respiratory disease?

Pulmonary parenchymal diseases

35

A forceful expiratory effort is known as a what?

Cough

36

What are 3 possible triggers of a cough?

- Inflammatory products of neutrophils or eosinophils
- Excessive secretions
- Airway collapse

37

What are the 2 general classifications of a cough?

- Dry, non-productive
- Moist, productive

38

How can a cough be determined non-cardiogenic?

Absence of cardiac enlargement on thoracic radiographs.

39

If thoracic radiographs show abnormal lungs, what 2 areas should be looked at?

- Lower airways
- Pulmonary parenchyma

40

If thoracic radiographs show normal lungs, what area of the respiratory tract should be examined?

Trachea

41

A human term describing difficult or labored breathing is known as what?

Dyspnea

42

Conscious perception of "air hunger" is seen with what type of respiratory distress?

Dyspnea

43

Is dyspnea considered an ideal term for animal patients?

No

44

An increase in respiratory rate that may or may not be associated with distress is known as what?

Tachypnea

45

Tachypnea should not be confused with what?

Panting

46

What is a breathing pattern that dispels heat?

Panting

47

What are 3 possible meanings of panting?

- Heat not distress
- Respiratory distress
- Stress in cats

48

With which respiratory condition can an animal can only breathe in an upright position with elbows abducted?

Orthopnea

49

What type of lung diseases are associated with orthopnea?

Pleural diseases

50

Respiratory distress is associated most often with what type of airway diseases?

Lower airway diseases

51

What is an example of an upper airway disease in dogs where respiratory distress is experienced?

Bilateral laryngeal paralysis

52

What is an example of insufficient oxygen in inspired air causing respiratory distress?

High altitude

53

What is an example of insufficient ventilation that can cause respiratory distress?

Pulmonary parenchyma disease

54

What is an example of insufficient circulation causing respiratory distress?

Cardiac failure

55

What is an example of insufficient RBCs that can cause respiratory distress?

Anemia

56

What is a source of abnormal hemoglobin that can cause respiratory distress?

Methemoglobinemia

57

Not enough oxygen = what?

Cyanosis

58

What does cyanosis indicate?

Severe hypoxemia

59

What are 5 possible causes of cyanosis/hypoxemia?

- Lack of oxygen: upper or lower airways
- Abnormal hemoglobin: toxins
- Heart disease
- Lung disease
- Potentially fatal event, such as the stopping of heart and lung function (cardiopulmonary arrest)

60

An increased inspiratory effort would indicate what 2 possible causes?

- Upper airway obstruction
- Pleural disease

61

An increased expiratory effort could be caused by what?

Lower airway obstruction

62

Shallow breaths with an increase in respiratory rate and effort indicate what?
What type of posture is often associated with this?

- Restrictive pattern associated with lung parenchymal or pleural disease
- Orthopneic posture

63

Discordant motions of the chest and abdominal muscles are known as what?

Flail chest or respiratory muscle fatigue

64

What should be checked for with an upper airway obstruction?

Nasal airflow

65

Which lung sound is loudest over the hilus?

Bronchial

66

Which lung sound is best heard on inspiration at the periphery of the chest?

Vesicular

67

Which normal lung sound resembles the "wind blowing"?

Bronchial

68

Which normal lung sound resembles the "rustling of leaves"?

Vesicular

69

When are bronchial sounds heard the loudest?

During expiration

70

A mixture, but mostly expiratory sounds that increase in intensity at central airway area are known as what?

Bronchovesicular

71

The snapping open of airways that have closed due to fluid either in or around them cause what abnormal lung sound?

Crackles

72

Which abnormal lung sound resembles "rice krispies"?

Crackles

73

Which abnormal lung sound is caused by airflow through a narrow opening?

Wheezes

74

When are wheezes usually heard?

On expiration

75

A loud snap over the hilus at the end of expiration indicates what?

Collapse of the intrathoracic trachea, carina or main stem bronchi

76

What type of sound indicates a tracheal collapse?

"Goose honks" or "kazoo"

77

When roughened pleural surfaces are rubbing against each other what abnormal lung sound is created?

Creaking/grating sounds (bed springs)

78

What is most important diagnostic test for signs of respiratory system disease in many cases?

Imaging

79

What needs to be done before rads are taken for respiratory system disease?

Patient needs to be stabilized.

80

What has become the standard for evaluation of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses?

CT/MRI

81

What are 3 indications for a nasal flush?

- Foreign body suspect
- Cleanse airways prior to rhinoscopy
- Obtain samples for cytology

82

What needs to be used with a nasal flush?

General anesthesia and cuffed endotracheal tube

83

When flushing saline into one nostril for a nasal flush, what needs to be done with the other one?

It needs to be held closed with a finger.

84

What position should cats be put in for a nasal flush?

Dorsal recumbency with a small rolled towel placed under the neck.

85

What type of catheter should be used of antegrade and retrograde flushes?

Foley catheter

86

What are 3 limitations of using an otoscope for examining a nasal cavity?

- Depth
- Visibility
- Biopsy

87

How do you enter the nare with a rhinoscope?
Why?

- In a medial and dorsal direction
- Otherwise end up in a blind pouch

88

What is an advantage on a rhinoscope?

Can see and biopsy abnormal areas

89

What needs to be put on the biopsy forceps when performing a blind biopsy?
Why?

- Tape
- So cribiform plate will not be penetrated

90

What part of the respiratory tract is examined with bronchoscopy?

Lower respiratory tract

91

What are 3 things that bronchoscopy can help with the diagnosis of?

- Collapsing trachea
- Foreign Body
- Masses

92

When is bronchoscopy contraindicated?
What is the exception?

- Severe respiratory tract compromise
- Unless it is therapeutic (ex. removal of foreign body)

93

What are 3 indications for the use of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)?

- Small airway lung disease
- Alveoli lung disease
- Lung disease involving interstitium

94

What can be used to sample specific disease lung lobes?

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)

95

Transtracheal washes and aspirates are used in what size dogs?

Medium-larger breed dogs

96

What is the anatomical landmark that can be felt through palpation for a transtracheal wash?

Cricothyroid ligament

97

Endotracheal or transoral washes are used in what size animals?

Cats and tiny dogs

98

General anesthesia is required for what type of wash?

Endotracheal or transoral

99

How is an endotracheal or transoral wash administered?

Catheter down an ET tube

100

What are 2 indications for a transthoracic lung aspiration?

- Intra-thoracic mass lesions in contact with thoracic wall
- Diffuse disease

101

What can improve the diagnostic yield and safety of a transthoracic lung aspiration?

Ultrasound guidance

102

What are 3 possible complications of a transthoracic lung aspiration?

- Hemothorax
- Pneumothorax
- Pyothorax later on

103

What is a contraindication of a transthoracic lung aspiration?

Abscess

104

Should a transthoracic lung aspiration be taken during inspiration or expiration?

Inspiration

105

What is a technique that can be used for removing pleural effusion and air from the thoracic cavity?

Thoracocentesis

106

What is used in the treatment of pyothorax?

Chest tube

107

What can be used for the management of pneumothorax when air is continually accumulating?

Chest tube

108

What are 4 things to consider when choosing an antibiotic to treat a respiratory condition?

- What oraganisms are likely?
- What antibiotics penetrate respiratory tissue?
- Which part of the respiratory system are you treating?
- Which species of animal are you treating?

109

What are bronchodilators usually used for?

Bronchitis

110

What is used mainly in dogs with a dry and non-productive cough due to airway collapse or irritant tracheitis?
When should it be avoided?

- Anti-tussives
- Avoid with moist coughs

111

What can improve hydration of the lower airways?

Nebulization followed by coupage

112

What are 2 indications for the therapeutic use of oxygen?

- Treatment of hypoxemia
- Decrease workload of heart and lungs

113

What are 4 examples of methods for administering oxygen?

- Face mask
- Nasal catheter
- Cage
- Intratracheal