Dog Tracheobronchial Flashcards Preview

SAM 2 > Dog Tracheobronchial > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dog Tracheobronchial Deck (72):
1

Hoarse bark, gagging, inspiratory difficulty, cough, wheezing and respiratory distress are all clinical signs of what?

Tracheobronchial disease

2

What is the most common clinical sign of tracheobronchial disease?

Cough

3

How many organisms are involved with Kennel Cough?

One or multiple

4

What are 4 organisms that may be involved with Kennel Cough?

- Parainfluenza
- Canine adenovirus 2
- Mycoplasma
- Bordetella

5

Which Kennel Cough causing organism attaches to cilia of bronchial epithelium and interferes with motility leading to mucus accumulation and inflammation?

Bordetella

6

Is Kennel Cough contagious?

Yes

7

How is Kennel cough spread?

Respiratory secretions ad fomites

8

What is the incubation period for Kennel Cough?

3-7 days

9

What is the most common clinical sign seen with Kennel Cough?

Coughing

10

When are clinical signs usually seen post-exposure for Kennel Cough?

4-10 days post-exposure

11

What are the 2 forms of Kennel Cough?

- Uncomplicated
- Complicated

12

With this form of Kennel Cough, the patient is not "sick". It involves only the upper airways and a dry cough can be elicited on tracheal palpation. There can be serous oculonasal discharge, gagging and retching.

Uncomplicated

13

With this form of Kennel Cough, the patient is "sick". It involves both upper and lower airways with a moist cough. There can be oculonasal discharge that is more mucopurulent and bronchopneumonia may develop.

Complicated

14

What is an important aspect of diagnosing Kennel Cough?

History

15

Further diagnostics may need to be performed with which form of Kennel Cough?

Complicated

16

What might be seen on a hemogram of a dog with complicated Kennel Cough?

Leukocytosis with left shift

17

What might thoracic radiographs show on a dog with complicated Kennel Cough?

Bronchopneumonia signs

18

Should exercise be restricted with uncomplicated, complicated Kennel Cough or both?

Both

19

What antibiotic can be used to treat uncomplicated Kennel Cough if Bordetella is the suspected causative agent?

Doxycycline

20

Uncomplicated Kennel Cough usually resolves within what amount of time?

Within 2 weeks

21

Can cough suppressants used with uncomplicated Kennel Cough?

Yes

22

What are 4 cough suppressant options that can be used for uncomplicated Kennel Cough?

- Butorphanol
- Hydrocodone
- Codeine derivatives
- Dextromethorphan

23

Systemic antibiotics should be given for 2 weeks with which form of Kennel Cough?

Complicated

24

What is not a good choice for the treatment of Bordetella due to poor levels in respiratory secretions?

Penicillin

25

Nebulization with what nephrotoxic drug can help to decrease coughing with complicated Kennel Cough?

Gentamicin

26

When should cough suppressants be avoided with complicated Kennel Cough?

Avoid if bacterial pneumonia is present.

27

What is a bronchodilator that can be used for complicated Kennel Cough?
What needs to be done if quinolone antibiotics are also being used?

- Theophylline
- Avoid or decrease dose by 30% if using quinolone antibiotics

28

What is the prognosis with Kennel Cough?

Good to excellent

29

Which 2 viruses can be vaccinated for parenterally?

- Canine adenovirus 2
- Parainfluenza

30

Which 2 viruses can be vaccinated for intranasally or intraorally?

- Parainfluenza
- Bordetella

31

What are 2 environmental prevention techniques for Kennel Cough?

- Sanitation with clorox diluted 1:32
- Ventilation in kennels

32

What type is canine influenza?
What other influenza virus did this one mutate from?

- Influenza Type A H3N8
- Equine influenza

33

When was canine influenza first discovered?
In which breed?

- 2004 in FL
- Racing Greyhounds

34

When are clinical signs seen with canine influenza?

2-5 days post-exposure

35

How is canine influenza transmitted?

Direct contact with respiratory secretions or fomites.

36

What percentage of dogs with canine influenza do not show clinical signs?
What are they known as?

- 20%
- Shedders and spreaders

37

What are the 2 forms of canine influenza?

- Mild/uncomplicated
- Severe/complicated

38

What are 3 ways to diagnose canine influenza?

- PCR if sample is within 72 hours of onset
- Acute and convalescent titers
- Viral isolation

39

Which form of canine influenza looks just like mild or uncomplicated Kennel Cough?

Mild/uncomplicated

40

Which form of canine influenza can have a high fever of 104-106 F and hemorrhagic pneumonia with coughing up of blood, dyspnea and tachypnea?

Severe/complicated

41

Which form of canine influenza can have rapid onset leading to death with hours?

Severe/complicated

42

What is the mortality rate with severe/complicated canine influenza?

5-8%

43

What is the general treatment for canine influenza?

Supportive care

44

What might be given with the severe/complicated form of canine influenza?

Systemic antibiotics

45

Is the vaccine for canine influenza a core vaccine?

No

46

What should be done with sick or exposed dogs?

Isolate

47

How long does the canine influenza virus last in the environment?

Not more than 48 hours.

48

What should be done to an environment exposed to canine influenza?

Disinfect with bleach (1/2 cup in gallon of water)

49

What is a dog parasite that causes cream colored nodules in the trachea?

Oslerus osleri

50

What is the signalment for an Oslerus osleri infection?

Younger dogs, kennels

51

What are 3 clinical signs for Oslerus osleri?

- Cough
- Wheezing
- Dyspnea

52

What are 3 ways to possibly diagnose Oslerus osleri?

- Tracheal mass on radiograph
- Mass seen in bronchoscopy
- Brushings/biopsy of mass, fecal exam

53

What are two drugs that can be used to treat Oslerus osleri?

- Ivermectin
- Fenbendazole

54

What is the signalment for collapsing trachea?

- Middle aged to older dogs
- Toy or small breeds
- Obese

55

Lack of what 2 things can lead to a reduction in chondrocytes in tracheal cartilage?

- Glycosaminoglycans
- Chondroitin sulfate

56

Weak cartilage with flattening of tracheal rings can lead to what 3 things?

- Mechanical irritation
- Edema
- Inflammation

57

What happens when tracheal rings loose firmness?

Tracheal collapse

58

What is a classical clinical sign for tracheal collapse?

Goose honk cough

59

What are 3 things that can exacerbate the clinical signs seen with tracheal collapse?

- Excitement
- Exercise
- Eating

60

What can elicit a cough with tracheal collapse?

Tracheal palpation

61

Many dogs with collapsing trachea have what condition?
What is believed to be the cause?

- Hepatomegaly
- Oxygen deprivation resulted in significant liver disease.

62

What are 2 possible clinical signs that can be seen with collapsing trachea?

- Cardiac murmur
- Variable breath sounds

63

What are 4 aspects of diagnosing tracheal collapse?
Which one is the best?

- Signalment, history, PE
- Thoracic/cervical radiographs
- Fluoroscopy
- Bronchoscopy (best)

64

What is often required in a case of acute severe tracheal collapse?
What are 3 examples?

- Sedation
- Acepromazine, butorphanol, diazepam

65

What are 2 cough suppressants that can be used with acute severe tracheal collapse?
Which is the better option?

- Butorphanol injectable (better)
- Oral hydrocodone

66

What corticosteroid can be given at what single dose for its anti-inflammatory effects?

- Dexamethasone
- 0.1 mg/kg IV

67

A patient with acute severe tracheal collapse needs to be place in what type of environment as soon as possible?

Oxygen rich environment

68

What is the duration of action of dexamethasone?

48 hours

69

Which is more potent, dexamethasone or prednisone?

Dexamethasone

70

What percentage of tracheal collapsing cases don't respond to medical management?

30%

71

T/F: If surgical intervention is need for a collapsing trachea, referring is recommended.

True

72

What are 2 forms of surgical intervention for a collapsing trachea?

- Extraluminal supports
- Endoluminal stenting