Flashcards in Dog Tracheobronchial Deck (72):
Hoarse bark, gagging, inspiratory difficulty, cough, wheezing and respiratory distress are all clinical signs of what?
What is the most common clinical sign of tracheobronchial disease?
How many organisms are involved with Kennel Cough?
One or multiple
What are 4 organisms that may be involved with Kennel Cough?
- Canine adenovirus 2
Which Kennel Cough causing organism attaches to cilia of bronchial epithelium and interferes with motility leading to mucus accumulation and inflammation?
Is Kennel Cough contagious?
How is Kennel cough spread?
Respiratory secretions ad fomites
What is the incubation period for Kennel Cough?
What is the most common clinical sign seen with Kennel Cough?
When are clinical signs usually seen post-exposure for Kennel Cough?
4-10 days post-exposure
What are the 2 forms of Kennel Cough?
With this form of Kennel Cough, the patient is not "sick". It involves only the upper airways and a dry cough can be elicited on tracheal palpation. There can be serous oculonasal discharge, gagging and retching.
With this form of Kennel Cough, the patient is "sick". It involves both upper and lower airways with a moist cough. There can be oculonasal discharge that is more mucopurulent and bronchopneumonia may develop.
What is an important aspect of diagnosing Kennel Cough?
Further diagnostics may need to be performed with which form of Kennel Cough?
What might be seen on a hemogram of a dog with complicated Kennel Cough?
Leukocytosis with left shift
What might thoracic radiographs show on a dog with complicated Kennel Cough?
Should exercise be restricted with uncomplicated, complicated Kennel Cough or both?
What antibiotic can be used to treat uncomplicated Kennel Cough if Bordetella is the suspected causative agent?
Uncomplicated Kennel Cough usually resolves within what amount of time?
Within 2 weeks
Can cough suppressants used with uncomplicated Kennel Cough?
What are 4 cough suppressant options that can be used for uncomplicated Kennel Cough?
- Codeine derivatives
Systemic antibiotics should be given for 2 weeks with which form of Kennel Cough?
What is not a good choice for the treatment of Bordetella due to poor levels in respiratory secretions?
Nebulization with what nephrotoxic drug can help to decrease coughing with complicated Kennel Cough?
When should cough suppressants be avoided with complicated Kennel Cough?
Avoid if bacterial pneumonia is present.
What is a bronchodilator that can be used for complicated Kennel Cough?
What needs to be done if quinolone antibiotics are also being used?
- Avoid or decrease dose by 30% if using quinolone antibiotics
What is the prognosis with Kennel Cough?
Good to excellent
Which 2 viruses can be vaccinated for parenterally?
- Canine adenovirus 2
Which 2 viruses can be vaccinated for intranasally or intraorally?
What are 2 environmental prevention techniques for Kennel Cough?
- Sanitation with clorox diluted 1:32
- Ventilation in kennels
What type is canine influenza?
What other influenza virus did this one mutate from?
- Influenza Type A H3N8
- Equine influenza
When was canine influenza first discovered?
In which breed?
- 2004 in FL
- Racing Greyhounds
When are clinical signs seen with canine influenza?
2-5 days post-exposure
How is canine influenza transmitted?
Direct contact with respiratory secretions or fomites.
What percentage of dogs with canine influenza do not show clinical signs?
What are they known as?
- Shedders and spreaders
What are the 2 forms of canine influenza?
What are 3 ways to diagnose canine influenza?
- PCR if sample is within 72 hours of onset
- Acute and convalescent titers
- Viral isolation
Which form of canine influenza looks just like mild or uncomplicated Kennel Cough?
Which form of canine influenza can have a high fever of 104-106 F and hemorrhagic pneumonia with coughing up of blood, dyspnea and tachypnea?
Which form of canine influenza can have rapid onset leading to death with hours?
What is the mortality rate with severe/complicated canine influenza?
What is the general treatment for canine influenza?
What might be given with the severe/complicated form of canine influenza?
Is the vaccine for canine influenza a core vaccine?
What should be done with sick or exposed dogs?
How long does the canine influenza virus last in the environment?
Not more than 48 hours.
What should be done to an environment exposed to canine influenza?
Disinfect with bleach (1/2 cup in gallon of water)
What is a dog parasite that causes cream colored nodules in the trachea?
What is the signalment for an Oslerus osleri infection?
Younger dogs, kennels
What are 3 clinical signs for Oslerus osleri?
What are 3 ways to possibly diagnose Oslerus osleri?
- Tracheal mass on radiograph
- Mass seen in bronchoscopy
- Brushings/biopsy of mass, fecal exam
What are two drugs that can be used to treat Oslerus osleri?
What is the signalment for collapsing trachea?
- Middle aged to older dogs
- Toy or small breeds
Lack of what 2 things can lead to a reduction in chondrocytes in tracheal cartilage?
- Chondroitin sulfate
Weak cartilage with flattening of tracheal rings can lead to what 3 things?
- Mechanical irritation
What happens when tracheal rings loose firmness?
What is a classical clinical sign for tracheal collapse?
Goose honk cough
What are 3 things that can exacerbate the clinical signs seen with tracheal collapse?
What can elicit a cough with tracheal collapse?
Many dogs with collapsing trachea have what condition?
What is believed to be the cause?
- Oxygen deprivation resulted in significant liver disease.
What are 2 possible clinical signs that can be seen with collapsing trachea?
- Cardiac murmur
- Variable breath sounds
What are 4 aspects of diagnosing tracheal collapse?
Which one is the best?
- Signalment, history, PE
- Thoracic/cervical radiographs
- Bronchoscopy (best)
What is often required in a case of acute severe tracheal collapse?
What are 3 examples?
- Acepromazine, butorphanol, diazepam
What are 2 cough suppressants that can be used with acute severe tracheal collapse?
Which is the better option?
- Butorphanol injectable (better)
- Oral hydrocodone
What corticosteroid can be given at what single dose for its anti-inflammatory effects?
- 0.1 mg/kg IV
A patient with acute severe tracheal collapse needs to be place in what type of environment as soon as possible?
Oxygen rich environment
What is the duration of action of dexamethasone?
Which is more potent, dexamethasone or prednisone?
What percentage of tracheal collapsing cases don't respond to medical management?
T/F: If surgical intervention is need for a collapsing trachea, referring is recommended.