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Flashcards in Cattle - Respiratory Dz Deck (144)
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Describe the epidemiology of fungal rhinitis in cattle and common fungi implicated.

- Rare.
- No age/breed/sex predisposition.
- More common in warm, wet climates.
- Rhinosporidium, helminthosporidium, dreschslera rostrata, aspergillus, phycomycetes, stachybotrys, bipolaris; also nocardia bacteria.


List the clinical signs of fungal rhinitis in cattle.

- Stridor.
- Dyspnoea.
- Mucopurulent nasal discharge.
- +/- epistaxis.
- +/- open-mouth breathing.


How is fungal rhinitis diagnosed in cattle?

Histo: granulation tissue with eosinophils, mononuclear cells, sporangia, hyphae, filamentous bacteria.


How is fungal rhinitis treated in cattle?

- Surgical debulking.
- Sodium iodide (NB overdose --> cough, scaly skin, excessive lacrimation).


Describe the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis/Enzootic Nasal Granuloma of cattle and sheep.

Type I (IgE) hypersensitivity to pollen/fungi etc --> ongoing reaction exposure --> tissue damage by mast cell factors --> chronic epithelial, duct, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion and granulomatous inflammation (type IV hypersensitivity).


Is there a breed or age predisposition for Enzootic Nasal Granuloma in cattle?

- Channel island breeds (Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney) and Friesians.
- 6mo to 2yo.


Describe the clinical signs of Enzootic Nasal Granuloma in cattle and sheep.

- Sneezing.
- Nasal pruritis.
- Dyspnoea.
- Stertor.
- Profuse bilateral nasal discharge.
- +/- facial swelling, tachypnoea, hyperpnoea, ulceration of nasal mucosa, lacrimation, chemosis.
- Granulomas: multiple, firm, white, raised, 1-2mm.


How is Enzootic Nasal Granuloma in cattle and sheep diagnosed?

- Endoscopy.
- Biopsy.
- Culture.
- Antigen detection/serology to rule out bacterial, viral or fungal infection.
- Inc eosinophils in nasal secretions.


Describe the treatment of Enzootic Nasal Granuloma in cattle and sheep.

- Remove allergens.
- Anti-histamines.
- Meclofenamic acid.
- Steroids.


List the neoplasias that have been reported to occur in the nasal passages of cattle.

- Osteomas.
- Osteosarcomas.
- Squamous cell carcinomas.
- Neuroblastomas.
- Haemangiosarcomas.
- Ethmoid adenocarcinoma: endemic pattern, 6-9yo, unilateral, viral origin? Mets in LN and lung.


List clinical signs of nasal neoplasia in cattle.

- Inspiratory dyspnoea.
- Stridor.
- Nasal discharge.
- Epistaxis.
- Halitosis.
- Decreased airflow through nares.
- Open-mouth breathing.
- Distortion of facial bones.
- NB not typically treated.


Describe the lesion seen in congenital cystic nasal turbinate disease of cattle.

Nasal conchae lack communication with nasal cavity and fill with fluid.


Describe the clinical signs and diagnosis of congenital cystic nasal turbinates in cattle.

- Stridor.
- Tachypnoea.
- Decreased air flow.
- Exercise intolerance.
- Open-mouth breathing.
- Palpation.
- Endoscopy.
- Rads --> large, smooth, cystic ventral conchae.


Describe the treatment of congenital cystic nasal turbinates in cattle.

- Sx: bilateral dorsal lateral nasal bone flaps.
- Sx: transnasal removal with gigli wire.


Describe the signalment and aetiology of sinusitis in ruminants.

- Cattle > sheep or goats.
- Usually frontal (dehorning) or maxillary (tooth).
- Other causes: injury, extension of actinomyces or nasal neoplasia, resp viruses (MCF, IBR, PI3), sinus cysts, lymphoma, oestrus ovis.


Describe the clinical signs of sinusitis in cattle.

- Acute or chronic.
- Anorexia.
- Lethargy.
- +/- fever.
- Dehorning site discharging pus.
- Unilateral or bilateral nasal discharge.
- Stridor.
- Foul breath.
- Head held at an angle.
- +/- frontal bone distortion, exophthalmus, neuro signs.


Describe the diagnosis of sinusitis in cattle.

- Clinical signs and history.
- Percussion (dull sounds or pain).
- Radiographs.
- Sinus centesis (Steinmann pin).


Describe treatment of sinusitis in cattle.

- Sinus trephination (1 or 2 sites).
- Lavage.
- +/- remove tooth.
- If systemic signs: NSAIDs, ABs (penicillin for Trueperella - dehorning, oxytet for pastuerella - not dehorning).


Describe the aetiology of pharyngeal trauma, abscesses, cellulitis and granulomas in cattle.

- Trauma: balling gun, dose syringe, specula, stomach tube, rough stemmy feeds, grass awns, brias, FBs.
- T. pyogenes, Actinobacillus, Pastuerella, Bordatella. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus.


List the clinical signs of pharyngeal trauma, abscesses, cellulitis and granulomas in cattle.

- Inspiratory dyspnoea with stertor.
- Extended head and neck.
- Ptyalism.
- Quidding.
- Pain or swelling.
- Regurgitation through nostrils.
- Mucopurulent to blood nasal discharge with fetid odour.
- Cough.
- Bloat.
- Palpable swelling in the pharyngeal area.
- If severe dz: depression, fever, anorexia, dehydration, forestomach stasis.


Describe the diagnosis of pharyngeal trauma, abscesses, cellulitis and granulomas in cattle.

- Oral exam.
- Endoscopy.
- Rads.
- CBC: neutrophilia, +/- metabolic acidosis due to saliva loss.


List the treatment of pharyngeal trauma, abscesses, cellulitis and granulomas in cattle.

- Drain abscess into pharynx and lavage.
- Drain externally.
- ABs.
- Tracheotomy.
- Feed through rumenostomy.
- Good Px.


Describe the epidemiology and pathophysiology of Necrotic Laryngitis (aka Calf Diphtheria).

- Feedlot cattle.
- Young (3-18mo); >30 days on feed.
- URT infection --> laryngeal contact ulcers or H. somni infection --> damage to laryngeal mucosa --> invasion of F. necrophorum --> acute to chronic infection of laryngeal mucosa and cartilages.
- Worldwide distribution, occur year-round but more common in Autumn and Winter.


Describe the clinical signs of Necrotic Laryngitis in cattle.

- Acute onset moist, painful cough.
- Severe inspiratory dyspnoea, stertor, head and neck extended.
- Salivation/frequent swallowing or sipping water.
- Anorexia, fever, hyperaemic MMs.
- Bilateral fetid nasal discharge.
- Un-treated die in 2-7d.
- Recovered may become roarers, get aspiration pneumonia or be poor doers.


Describe the treatment and prognosis of Necrotic Laryngitis.

- ABs: oxytetracycline, penicillin, TMPS.
- NSAIDs (1 dose steroid if severe swelling).
- +/- tracheotomy.
- Nursing care.
- Px good if dx early and aggressive tx, otherwise poor.


Describe lesions found at necropsy of cattle that have died from Necrotic Laryngitis.

- Vocal processes and medial angles of arytenoids.
- Acute: oedema, hyperaemia, swelling, discharge around necrotic ulcer.
- Chronic: focus of necrotic cartilage surrounded by purulent exudate with tract to mucosal surface; arytenoid rotated into lumen or cavities.


Describe laryngeal papillomatosis of feedlot cattle.

- Common disease.
- Papovavirus enters via laryngeal ulcers.
- CSx: sterterous respiration, cough.
- Lesion: sessile to pedunculated, yellow, frond-like, 1-10mm growths on vocal processes or arytenoids.
- Tx: usually not indicated; may remove surgically.


Describe the aetiology of tracheal collapse and stenosis in cattle.

- Infrequently reported.
- Unknown aetiology; potential causes incl trauma (roping, dystocia), tracheostomies, congenital defects.


Describe the clinical signs of tracheal collapse and stenosis in cattle.

- BAR --> tachypnoea, tachycardia, mucosal hyperaemia, dyspnoea exacerbated by exercise/excitement, stertor, 'honking' cough.
- Lack of response to tracheostomy, NSAIDs, ABs.


Describe the diagnosis of tracheal collapse and stenosis in cattle.

- Endoscopy.
- Rads: dorsoventral flattening in caudal cervical or cranial thoracic trachea most common; can be lateral.
- Necropsy: dorsally or laterally flattened trachea.