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Flashcards in Small Ruminants - Respiratory Dz Deck (17)
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List neoplasias that have been reported to occur in the nasal passages of sheep and goats.

- Adenopapillomas.
- Adenomas.
- Adenocarcinomas.
- Squamous cell carcinomas.
- Ovine/caprine adenocarcinoma virus.


Describe the type of virus, clinical signs and prognosis for small ruminants infected with the Ovine/Caprine Adenocarcinoma Virus.

- Retrovirus.
- Infected secretory epithelial cells of the nasal turbinates.
- No breed/sex predilection.
- Typically affects young adults.
- Benign, locally invasive; eventually causes weight loss, asphyxia, secondary infection, death.
- Dx: endoscopy, rads, PCR (serology not useful).
- Surgical tx has been attempted but poor Px.


Describe the lifecycle of oestrus ovis.

- Infects sheep more frequently than goats; occ infects other animals --> conjunctivitis in people.
- Adult female fly lays 1st instar larvae near the nose of sheep, migrates to nasal and ethmoid turbinates.
- 2nd instar larvae develops and migrates to sinus.
- 3rd instar larvae migrates to nasal passages.
- Sneezed onto ground --> pupate --> adult flies (active in warm months and climates).


Describe the clinical signs of oestrus ovis infection in sheep and goats.

- Larvae irritate nasal passages/sinuses.
- Mucoid-mucopurulent-blood-tinged nasal discharge.
- Sneezing.
- Nose rubbing.
- Inspiratory stridor.
- Adult flies annoy sheep, decrease productivity, predispose to secondary bacterial rhinitis, sinusitis, pneumonia.


Describe treatment and prevention of oestrus ovis infection.

- Ivermectin after a frost (when adults are dead).
- Outside US: inj moxidectin and doramectin, pour on epinomectin.


Are there breed and sex predilections for development of laryngeal abscesses in sheep?

- Rams > ewes.
- Texel and Southdown.


Describe the aetiology of laryngeal abscesses in ruminants.

FB, trauma or congenital cavitation in cartilage --> infection with T. pyogenes.


Describe the clinical signs and diagnosis of laryngeal abscesses in ruminants.

- Alert, afebrile, eating well until terminal dyspnoea.
- Tachypnoea.
- Extension of head and neck.
- Progressive dyspnoea.
- Cyanosis.
- Stertor.


Describe the treatment and prognosis of laryngeal abscesses in ruminants.

- Tracheostomy.
- PPG.
- Px: guarded.


Ingestion of what plant by ewes can cause congenital tracheal stenosis in lambs?

Veratrum californicum at 31-33 days gestation --> rapid death of lambs after birth.


Do herpesviruses cause respiratory disease in small ruminants?

Importance of ovine and caprine herpesviruses in respiratory disease is unknown.


Do respiratory syncytial viruses cause respiratory disease in small ruminants?

Yes, there is an ovine respiratory syncytial virus and a caprine respiratory syncytial virus. No vacc available. CSx similar to cattle with BRSV.


Describe presentation of Ovine Adenovirus infections.

Causes mild respiratory and enteric disease in lambs.


What are the clinical signs of Mycoplasma mycoides ss mycoides (large colon type) infection in goats?

- Adults: polyarthritis, mastitis, AIP +/- death.
- Kids (2-8wks): high mortality:
i) High fever, death in 12-24h.
ii) CNS syndrome w opisthotonus and death in 24-72h.
iii) Fever, swollen/painful joints, pneumonia, recumbency.


Describe necropsy findings in goats that have died of Mycoplasma mycoides ss mycoides (large colon type) infection.

- Fibrinopurulent polyarthritis.
- Pneumonia: patchy to diffuse red consolidation, bronchointerstitial pneumonia +/- fibrinous exudate +/- pleural effusion.
- +/- pericarditis, peritonitis, enlarged liver/spleen/kidneys.


Describe diagnosis of Mycoplasma mycoides ss mycoides (large colon type) infection in goats.

- Ear canal PCR identifies chronic carriers.
- Culture of milk, joint fluid, blood, urine or tissue.


Describe treatment and prevention of Mycoplasma mycoides ss mycoides (large colon type) infection in goats.

- ABs almost always unsuccessful (tylosin, tetracycline).
- Kids that survive --> arthritis; does --> carriers.
- Prevention: maintain MmmLC free herd; purchase does w no hx of kid deaths from pneumonia or arthritis and neg bulk tank +/- indv milk cultures.
- Control in an outbreak: feed pasteurised goat or cow colostrum, pasteurised milk to 1mo, pasteurised milk/replace till weaning; cull kids w swollen joints.