Cell Differentiation + Apoptosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Differentiation + Apoptosis Deck (41):
1

process by which a cell assumes specialized structure and functions

differentiation

2

blank organisms do not undergo differentiation

single cell

3

these demonstrate the greatest number of examples of differentiation

embryos

4

cell differentiation also occurs in the adult which is called blank

maturation

5

example of maturation is an osteoblast turning into a blank

osteocyte

6

undifferentiated cells are aka blank or blank

stem cells, blast

7

four days old embryo that is a ball of cells

morula

8

a morula is not yet blank

differentiated

9

early embryo is a three layer blank

germ disk

10

destruction and death of a cell caused by genetic programming

apoptosis

11

apoptosis is a blank process conducted by the cell that requires blank

active, energy

12

does apoptosis injure surrounding cells?

no

13

cell death due to external circumstances and can damage surrounding cells

necrosis

14

necrosis does not use its own blank

energy

15

apoptosis occurs during this time

entire lifespan

16

example of apoptosis in human

webbing that goes away between fingers and toes

17

rudimentary tail of the embryo is an extension of blank

vertebral column

18

surplus of unneeded reserve blast cells undergo blank

apoptosis

19

thymus makes the most blank in the body

lymphocytes

20

callus of skin is the blank layer

cornified

21

healthy hair is due to secretions of blank

sebaceous gland

22

all cells have a set of enzymes called blank which are normally present in an inactive form

caspases

23

caspases initiate blank when activated

apoptosis

24

caspases are an example of amplification of action because one caspase being activated triggers blank

a cascade of other caspases

25

apoptosed cells are removed by blank

phagocytosis

26

blood cells are derived in the blank

bone marrow

27

stem cell of blood cells

hemopoietic stem cell

28

two stages in development of RBC after hemopoietic stage

BFU-E, CFU-E (Burst/colony forming unit - erythroid)

29

hemopoietic stem cell is recognized by a cell surface marker called

cd34

30

level of erythrocytic differentiation which is the youngest precursor ofRBC that can be seen by microscopy

pronormoblast

31

any nucleated cell that is identifiable by routine staining that is recognized as a precursor of the RBC

normoblast

32

young large round cell with a large round nucleus.

pronormoblast

33

pronormoblast nucleus has a very delicate blank pattern and stains lightly

chromatin

34

common organelle that resists staining

golgi

35

hemoglobin is basophilic or acidophilic

acidophilic

36

RBC where traces of RNA can be seen

polychromatic erythrocytes (immature RBC)

37

polychromatic erythrocytes are only released into circulation during blank

blood loss

38

RBC usually live for blank days

100

39

we replace blank percent of RBCs per day

1%

40

first test tube baby

joy

41

rbc stages

pronormoblast, basophilic normoblast, polychromatic normoblast, orthochromatic normoblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte