Cell differentiation, Programming and Epigenetic control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell differentiation, Programming and Epigenetic control Deck (27)
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1

Somites

Paired blocks at the rostral end of the paraxial mesoderm

2

Human embryos initially form X pairs of somites reduced to Y pairs

X- 40 - 44
Y - 37-38

3

The notochord is located X to the somite and releases Y

X- ventral
Y- Shh

4

Which cells secrete Wnt3a?

Dorsal-mediate somite cells

5

Myotome is induced in _____ cells by ______ from the ____

Ventral-lateral somite cells, low levels of Shh and BMP4, lateral plate mesoderm

6

Myoblast is a _____ cell of _______

Progenitor cell of skeletal muscle

7

FGF stimulates_______ cell division

Myoblast cell division

8

Myod1 is a ______ master _____ gene, induced by _____

Muscle-specific master regulatory gene, induced by Wnt3a

9

Myod1 inhibits _____, activates _______ and promotes _____

1. Cell proliferation
2. Transcription of some muscle regulatory genes e.g. creatine phosphokinase/ Ach receptor
3. Muscle differentiation

10

Mood belongs to

Family of myogenic regulatory factors which also includes Myf5, Myf6, MyoG

11

MRF are _______ TF's that regulate ______

Sequence-specific DNA binding, TF's that regulate myogenesis

12

Myod1 activity causes ______ to ______ to form ________

Myoblast to fuse together to form multinucleate myotubes -> myofibres -> basic cellular unit of skeletal muscle

13

Titin

27k to 33k amino acids in length -> largest no. of exons 363, 17106bp

14

Actin is a _________ protein, a is present in ____ beta and gamma are in ______

Ubiquitous protein, α– (high levels in muscle cells), β- and γ–actin (microfilaments), more than 30 genes

15

Differential gene expression

Only a small % of genome is transcribed in each cell

16

Enhancer

Cis-regulatory elements -> bind tissue-specific TF's

17

Epigenetic control

Transcription modification by DNA or associated histones

18

5-methylcyotsine

Causes methylation preferentially at CpG dinucleotides close to trans. start site

19

Enzyme that copies methylation pattern to newly synthesised strands

DNA methyltransferase

20

2 ways methylation affects transcription

1 ) Blocking TF binding
2) Recruiting proteins that modify histone proteins to heterochromatin

21

Histones that are core proteins of nucleosomes

H2A, H2B, H3 + H4

22

Euchromatin

Trans. activation due to acetylation

23

Transdetermination

3-5 founder mitotic cells can change their state of determination

24

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

Reprogram genome of a differentiated cell by transferring nucleus into cytoplasm of an egg

25

How are multiple cell types made in vitro?

Take inner cell mass cells of mammalian blastocyst + add chemical signals

26

MyoD1

Basic-helix-loop-helix TF related to TF for skeletal muscle differentiation

27

Which genes are sufficient to induce pluripotency?

Oct4, Sox2, Myc and Klf4