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Y1 Fwong MCD Cell Path Mubarak > Cell Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (24)
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List the causes of Cell injuries?

Oxygen Deprivation

Chemical Agents-poison

Infectious agents

Immunological reactions

Genetic Defects

Nutritional Imbalances

Physical agents-bullet




What does cellular response to injurious stimuli depend on?

The type of injury Its duration Its severity


What do the consequences of an injurious stimulus depend on?

on the type of cell

its status- certain stages of the cells development leave it more susceptible to pathogens


Name the four intracellular systems that are particularly vulnerable to cell damage?

Cell membrane integrity ATP Generation Protein Synthesis The integrity of the genetic appuratus


State the differences between apoptosis and necrosis?

Apoptosis is a form of cell death that is generally triggered by normal, healthy processes in the body. 

Necrosis is cell death that is triggered by external factors or disease, such as trauma or infection.


Is this true of false.

Cellular function is lost before cell death occurs which in turn occurs before the morphological changes are seen



Define Atrophy

Shrinkage in the size of the cell (or organ) by the loss of cell substance


Define Hypertrophy?

Increase in the size of cells and consequently an increase in the size of the organ.

Can be physiological or pathological (disease cause increase in size of organ). It is caused either by increased functional demand (blood pressure) or specific hormonal stimulation( increase size of thyroid)


Define hyperplasia?

An increase in the number of cells in an organ

Can be physiological or pathological.

Physiological hyperplasia can be either hormonal or compensatory (fill space of another cell that has died).

Pathological hyperplasia is usually due to excessive hormonal or growth factor stimulation.


Give an examples of pathogenic Atrophy?


Muscle atrophy secondary to denervation.


Give an example of pathogenic and physiological Hypertrophy?

Gravid uterus (pregnancy)- physiological hypertrophy

Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. 


Give an example of Pathological Hyperplasia?



Give an example of physiological Hyperplasia?

Proliferative endometrium.

The endometrium is the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the uterus (womb). The endometrium changes throughout the menstrual cycle.


Define Metaplasia?

A reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another.

May be physiological / pathological.

Metaplasia is an adaptation that replaces one type of epithelium with another that is more likely to be able to withstand the stresses it is faced with.


Give an example of Physiological metaplasia?

Cervix- acidic pH of vagina during pregnancy causes columnar epithelium to switch to squamous epithelium. This means that the canal diameter greater and so makes it easier when the mother tries to push the baby out. THIS IS REVERSIBLE so after pregnancy, it returns back to colmnar epithelium. This is a CRUCIAL feature of metaplasia = being REVERSIBLE


Give an example of pathological metaplasia?

Barrett's Oesophagus- acid reflux causes the stratified squamous to change to columnar .


Define Dysplasia?

Precancerous cells which show the genetic and cytological features or malignancy but not invading the underlying tissue


Name the light microscopic changes associated with reversible injury?

Fatty Change

Cellular Swelling


Name a disease of dysplasia?

You can have dysplasia associated with barrett's oesophagus


Give examples of atrophy?

Dementia and muscle atrophy secondary to denervation


what does gravid uterus mean?

you are pregnant


Name the light microscopic changes associated with irreversible injury?

Coagulative necrosis

Liquefactive Necrosis

Caseous Necrosis

Fat Necrosis


Name three differences between apoptosis and necrosis?

Apoptosis may be physiological

Apoptosis is an active energy dependent process

Not associated with inflammation


Define necroptosis?

Programmed cell death associated with inflammation